Examples of Advertising Strategies

Advertise the benefits of your product or service.

Business woman advertises real estate on isolated background image by Izaokas Sapiro from

[Advertising Objectives] Examples of Advertising Objectives & Strategies

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[Retail Marketing] Definition of Retail Marketing

[Main Advertising Objectives] Three Main Advertising Objectives

Advertising means more than simply communicating the name, price or address of your small business, product or service to potential buyers. Advertising should use your marketing research to effectively communicate your brand or image, as well alert customers to the benefits you offer.

Regardless of what media you choose, sell the benefits of your product or service, rather than the product or service itself. For example, carmakers rarely advertise the number of cylinders in their engines or what type of brakes a car offers as their main selling points. They attempt to brand their autos by selling a particular benefit, such as reliability, status, affordability or safety. Dont just tell consumers to come to your restaurant, dry cleaning store or car wash — tell them why. If you have a kids-eat-free special, sell your benefit of being an economical, family-oriented restaurant.

Ads that encourage potential customers to buy a specific product or service are known as retail ads. These ads often include specific products, their prices, sales dates, coupons and a call to action. Examples of retail advertising include car dealer ads, supermarket inserts in newspapers and clothing and jewelry store ads. These ads are often nothing more than a list of products with prices, often pointing out the discounts offered.

Some advertising never mentions a particular product, price, store location or other information about the business. These ads create an image in the mind of consumers about the product or service. For example, Nike ran TV commercials with no dialogue, showing a consumer jogging, by herself, for 30 seconds. As the commercial faded to black, the words, Just Do It appeared on the screen. Nikes goal was to position itself as a maker of athletics shoes, clothing and accessories for consumers who were serious about exercise, sports, competition or training. Many perfume or cologne commercials feature bizarre sets, lighting and close-ups of models saying things completely unrelated to the product in an attempt to brand the product as hip or cutting edge.

In an effort to track the results of various media, some small business use coupons, promotional codes or rebates to determine where customers come from. If a restaurant advertises on the Internet, in a local newspaper and with direct mail to local residents, it can judge which worked the best by the number of coupons or flyers customers bring into the eatery.

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Sam Ashe-Edmunds has been writing and lecturing for decades. He has worked in the corporate and nonprofit arenas as a C-Suite executive, serving on several nonprofit boards. He is an internationally traveled sport science writer and lecturer. He has been published in print publications such as Entrepreneur, Tennis, SI for Kids, Chicago Tribune, Sacramento Bee, and on websites such , SmartyCents and Youthletic. Edmunds has a bachelors degree in journalism.

Business woman advertises real estate on isolated background image by Izaokas Sapiro fromFotolia.com

Ashe-Edmunds, Sam. Examples of Advertising Strategies.

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Log-Mar

Strategic planning and forecasting tend to use projections of past events to develop future plans. Such approaches rely on historical data and assume a continuation of past business practices and environmental stability.

An organizations macroenvironment consists of nonspecific aspects in the organizations surroundings that have the potential to affect the organizations strategies. When compared to a firms task environment, the impact of macroenvironmental variables is less direct and the organization has a more limited impact on these elements of the environment.

Maintenance is the combination of all technical and associated administrative actions intended to retain an item in, or restore it to, a state in which it can perform its required function. Many companies are seeking to gain competitive advantage with respect to cost, quality, service and on-time deliveries.

The make-or-buy decision is the act of making a strategic choice between producing an item internally (in-house) or buying it externally (from an outside supplier). The buy side of the decision also is referred to as outsourcing.

The term management audit is commonly used for examination and appraisal of the efficiency and effectiveness of management in carrying out its activities. Areas of auditor interest include the nature and quality of management decisions, operating results achieved, and risks undertaken.

One indicator of the growing recognition of management as a field of great importance has been the proliferation in the late twentieth century of prizes that various governments award their most outstanding organizations. Such official recognition of management practice, quality, and contribution to business reflects the belief at the highest levels that good management practice can be learned and nurtured through promoting awareness of best practices and innovative techniques.

Management control describes the means by which the actions of individuals or groups within an organization are constrained to perform certain actions while avoiding other actions in an effort to achieve organizational goals. Management control falls into two broad categoriesregulative and normative controlsbut within these categories are several types.

The functions of management uniquely describe managers jobs. The most commonly cited functions of management are planning, organizing, leading, and controlling, although some identify additional functions.

All businesses share one common asset, regardless of the type of business. It does not matter if they manufacture goods or provide services.

Managers are organizational members who are responsible for the work performance of other organizational members. Managers have formal authority to use organizational resources and to make decisions.

Management science generally refers to mathematical or quantitative methods for business decision making. The term operations research may be used interchangeably with management science.

A managers style is determined by the situation, the needs and personalities of his or her employees, and by the culture of the organization. Organizational restructuring and the accompanying cultural change has caused management styles to come in and go out of fashion.

The schools of management thought are theoretical frameworks for the study of management. Each of the schools of management thought are based on somewhat different assumptions about human beings and the organizations for which they work.

Manager effectiveness has an enormous impact on a firms success. Therefore, companies must provide instruction for managers and high-potential management candidates in order to help them perform current and future jobs with the utmost proficiency.

One of the concepts discussed, written about, and analyzed most frequently in recent years has been organizational change and the related concepts of resistance to change and management of change. Change has been variously defined as making a material difference in something compared to an earlier state, transforming or converting something, or simply becoming different.

Manufacturing resource planning, also known as MRP II, is a method for the effective planning of a manufacturers resources. MRP II is composed of several linked functions, such as business planning, sales and operations planning, capacity requirements planning, and all related support systems.

Firms are always concerned with the size of the potential market for their products or services and the proportion of that market they actually reachoften referred to as a companys market share. Market share is the percentage of the total market (or industry) sales made by one firm.

As the term suggests, marketing communication functions within a marketing framework. Traditionally known as the promotional element of the four Ps of marketing (product, place, price, and promotion), the primary goal of marketing communication is to reach a defined audience to affect its behavior by informing, persuading, and reminding.

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5 Creative Advertising Strategies and Examples for Success

When it comes to marketing strategies for your real estate company, there are tons of options to choose from and different things work for different people. With all the choices available, it can be a bit overwhelming trying to figure out how to best advertise and promote your listings.

Marketing Strategies for Real Estate Agents

Grab the Attention of Potential Customers with a Well Written Listing.

Dont sell your listing short (pun intended) with a bland, boring choice of words. Use lots of adjectives to draw a picture of what someones life could be like if only they had this home.

If you can create a video that is funny or interesting enough to go viral, then thats something you ought to jump on as soon as possible. The number of shares many viral videos accumulate will help you reach a much wider audience and likely wont cost you a thing. According to

, A viral video is one that creatively promotes a property, real estate company and/or Realtor by using content that draws attention and encourages viewers to want to share it with others.

This can assist you in keeping in touch with previous clients who may give you referrals in turn, as well as reminding them (and other potential clients who sign up for your list) that youre available to help.

Sponsor a Local Charity or Sports Team.

Whether its your childs soccer team or your local breast cancer walk, sponsoring a local charity or sports team that many others are involved in piques peoples interest in your company, especially if your logo can end up on a T-shirt or something of the sort.

Social media is a free tool that can do you a world of favors. Make sure to have, at the very least, dedicated Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram accounts. Keep them all updated regularly for best results. Programs like

can help in the battle to keep them updated if you need a hand.

Overall, theres a lot to do to successfully market and advertise yourself and your business. If you ever need an extra hand, look no further than the professionals atAdwerx.

advertising real estate 101Real estate agents are familiar with direct marketing and posting real estate listings, but retargeting will set you apart from the rest.

best way to advertise real estateHow can you best advertise your real estate business? Its a big question, but one we can answer by breaking down the core components of real estate marketing.

advertising real estateReal estate agents are familiar with direct marketing and posting real estate listings, but retargeting will set you apart from the rest.

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Real Estate Branding: Digital Advertising for the Big PictureUtilizing retargeting and display advertising to drive brand awareness is one of the most effective ways to develop your real estate brand today.

marketing luxury real estateMarketing luxury real estate begins by creating a digital presence, helping real estate agents build a personal brand that attracts million dollar sales.

There are many different examples of advertising techniques to leverage for real estate business, and creative examples range in size from business cards to billboards. Even just posting a new listing on your website is a form of advertising.

The 2015 advertising techniques you use to promote your business and brand awareness can be directly related to your success as an agent.

Advertising Words for Real Estate Agents

Its not what you say, but how you say it! Use powerful advertising words for real estate marketing and help your listings get the attention they deserve!Read full article…

The Best Advertising Words for Real Estate Ads

Advertising words for real estate come from the home buyers prospective. Listing of a listing may seem right because all the other real estate agents are doing it to sell. But thats why you want to do something different. Make your ads stand out by describing what the buyer wants to feel. Its not a house for themits a home.

7 Examples of Awesomely Creative Advertising Using Your Environment

Tips & tricks to help you get the most out of your online advertising.

7 Examples of Awesomely Creative Advertising: Using Your Environment

Yesterday I was walking through Boston when I came across quite an unusual scene a huge golden heap of Butterfingers smack in the middle of Copley Square.What kind of sorcery is this?I thought as I stared in awe at the giant mound of crunchy candy. Several people stood around the pile, gingerly picking up a candy bar here and there. But after about 30 seconds, kids swooped down in hordes, cramming piles of bars into their backpacks in sheer ecstasy. I snapped these photos to document the event:

Pawngos Butterfinger pile in Copley Square

Upon closer examination, this was no glorious miracle, but actually aclever advertising ployby Pawngo, an online pawnshop business and apparent Giants fan. Their candy bar jab gives new meaning to bittersweet. I wasnt beyond cramming some into my pockets before leaving though.

I had never heard of Pawngo before, but they got their name out in a clever and original way. Now ordinarily a giant pile of Butterfingers appearing in downtown Boston would certainly attract notice, but the sly post-Superbowl insult made the prank that much more worthy of attention.

Pawngo used their environment (Boston suffering after a Patriots defeat) to their advertising advantage. Here are some other unique examples of advertising that take advantage of setting and environment.

This recent McDonalds seed bomb ad was designed by Sean Click. Its certainly a unique idea, brightening up those dirty freeway shoulders with some colorful logos. But what makes the ad superbly innovative is Clicks premeditation regarding the ads geography; the flowers are California Poppies, the states official flower, which are illegal to dig up. So its actually illegal to destroy this McDonalds ad pretty incredible.

Using seed bombing as an advertising method is a really cool and original idea, and Id be interested in seeing it pushed further. Makes me wonder what it would be like if dandelions were Massachusettss state flower

JobsinTowns poster ads, perfectly placed on the sides of washer/dryers

Jobsintown.de is a German online recruitment site, and their collection of smartly placed poster ads immediately catch your attention. Theres a bit of child-like wonderment attached to these ads, as we are reminded of younger years, imagining little men pushing out money from inside ATM Machines and gremlins popping out soda cans from vending machines.

Dominos street and sidewalk grafiti ads

For this ad campaign, Dominos experimented with reverse graffiti, in which detergent and water is washed over a carefully placed stencil, resulting in a contrast between the dirty street and clean stenciled spots. Non destructive, eco-friendly, and original!

Axe theorizes that the white running man we often see guiding us to emergency exits isnt running from a burning inferno, but in fact a pack of lust-driven ladies, crazed by the escapees Axe scent.

Milwaukee River Keeperscreative waterwaygrafiti ad

Graffiti is a great form of street art, but legal issues tend to steer most businesses away from spray painting their brands across buildings. TheMilwaukee River Keeper organizationcreated a clever design that incorporates the waterways spouts as art elements for a design that directly links the message with the physical surroundings.

Oldtimers mountainside rest stop ad, in Austria

I find this ad for Oldtimer, an Austrian chain of motorway rest stops, quite terrifying. I cant help but think this might even be a safety hazard. Its certainly a great example of using your surroundings in advertising though.

FedExs brand is almost entirely dependent on their big white trucks. FedEx knows how iconic their trucks are, and what a great tool they can be for experimental advertising.

Do you have any ideas for using your environment to craft advertisements that stand out? How can we implement thiscreative mindset for online ads?

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MARKETING COMMUNICATION

As the term suggests, marketing communication functions within a marketing framework. Traditionally known as the promotional element of the four Ps of marketing (product, place, price, and promotion), the primary goal of marketing communication is to reach a defined audience to affect its behavior by informing, persuading, and reminding. Marketing communication acquires new customers for brands by building awareness and encouraging trial. Marketing communication also maintains a brands current customer base by reinforcing their purchase behavior by providing additional information about the brands benefits. A secondary goal of marketing communication is building and reinforcing relationships with customers, prospects, retailers, and other important stakeholders.

Successful marketing communication relies on a combination of options called the promotional mix. These options include advertising, sales promotion, public relations, direct marketing, and personal selling. The Internet has also become a powerful tool for reaching certain important audiences. The role each element takes in a marketing communication program relies in part on whether a company employs a push strategy or a pull strategy. A pull strategy relies more on consumer demand than personal selling for the product to travel from the manufacturer to the end user. The demand generated by advertising, public relations, and sales promotion pulls the good or service through the channels of distribution. A push strategy, on the other hand, emphasizes personal selling to push the product through these channels.

For marketing communication to be successful, however, sound management decisions must be made in the other three areas of the marketing mix: the product, service or idea itself; the price at which the brand will be offered; and the places at or through which customers may purchase the brand. The best promotion cannot overcome poor product quality, inordinately high prices, or insufficient retail distribution.

Likewise, successful marketing communication relies on sound management decisions regarding the coordination of the various elements of the promotional mix. To this end, a new way of viewing marketing communication emerged in the 1990s. Called integrated marketing communication, this perspective seeks to orchestrate the use of all forms of the promotional mix to reach customers at different levels in new and better ways.

The evolution of this new perspective has two origins. Marketers began to realize that advertising, public relations, and sales were often at odds regarding responsibilities, budgets, management input and myriad other decisions affecting the successful marketing of a brand. Executives in each area competed with the others for resources and a voice in decision making. The outcome was inconsistent promotional efforts, wasted money, counterproductive management decisions, and, perhaps worst of all, confusion among consumers.

Secondly, the marketing perspective itself began to shift from being market oriented to market driven. Marketing communication was traditionally viewed as an inside-out way of presenting the companys messages. Advertising was the dominant element in the promotional mix because the mass media could effectively deliver a sales message to a mass audience. But then the mass market began to fragment. Consumers became better educated and more skeptical about advertising. A variety of sources, both controlled by the marketer and uncontrolled, became important to consumers. News reports, word-of-mouth, experts opinions, and financial reports were just some of the brand contacts consumers began to use to learn about and form attitudes and opinions about a brand or company, or make purchase decisions. Advertising began to lose some of its luster in terms of its ability to deliver huge homogeneous audiences. Companies began to seek new ways to coordinate the multiplicity of product and company messages being issued and used by consumers and others.

Thus, two ideas permeate integrated marketing communication: relationship building and synergy. Rather than the traditional inside-out view, IMC is seen as an outside-in perspective. Customers are viewed not as targets but as partners in an ongoing relationship. Customers, prospects, and others encounter the brand and company through a host of sources and create from these various contacts ideas about the brand and company. By knowing the media habits and lifestyles of important consumer segments, marketers can tailor messages through media that are most likely to reach these segments at times when these segments are most likely to be receptive to these messages, thus optimizing the marketing communication effort.

Ideally, IMC is implemented by developing comprehensive databases on customers and prospects, segmenting these current and potential customers into groups with certain common awareness levels, predispositions, and behaviors, and developing messages and media strategies that guide the communication tactics to meet marketing objectives. In doing this, IMC builds and reinforces mutually profitable relationships with customers and other important stakeholders and generates synergy by coordinating all elements in the promotional mix into a program that possesses clarity, consistency, and maximum impact.

Practitioners and academics alike, however, have noted the difficulty of effectively implementing IMC. Defining exactly what IMC is has been difficult. For example, merely coordinating messages so that speaking with one clear voice in all promotional efforts does not fully capture the meaning of IMC. Also, changing the organization to accommodate the integrated approach has challenged the command and control structure of many organizations. However, studies suggest that IMC is viewed by a vast majority of marketing executives as having the greatest potential impact on their companys marketing strategies, more so than the economy, pricing, and globalization.

Advertising has four characteristics: it is persuasive in nature; it is non-personal; it is paid for by an identified sponsor; and it is disseminated through mass channels of communication. Advertising messages may promote the adoption of goods, services, persons, or ideas. Because the sales message is disseminated through the mass mediaas opposed to personal sellingit is viewed as a much cheaper way of reaching consumers. However, its non-personal nature means it lacks the ability to tailor the sales message to the message recipient and, more importantly, actually get the sale. Therefore, advertising effects are best measured in terms of increasing awareness and changing attitudes and opinions, not creating sales. Advertisings contribution to sales is difficult to isolate because many factors influence sales. The contribution advertising makes to sales are best viewed over the long run. The exception to this thinking is within the internet arena. While banner ads, pop-ups and interstitials should still be viewed as brand promoting and not necessarily sales drivers, technology provides the ability to track how many of a websites visitors click the banner, investigate a product, request more information, and ultimately make a purchase.

Through the use of symbols and images advertising can help differentiate products and services that are otherwise similar. Advertising also helps create and maintain brand equity. Brand equity is an intangible asset that results from a favorable image, impressions of differentiation, or consumer attachment to the company, brand, or trademark. This equity translates into greater sales volume, and/or higher margins, thus greater competitive advantage. Brand equity is established and maintained through advertising that focuses on image, product attributes, service, or other features of the company and its products or services.

Cost is the greatest disadvantage of advertising. The average cost for a 30-second spot on network television increased fivefold between 1980 and 2005. Plus, the average cost of producing a 30-second ad for network television is quite expensive. It is not uncommon for a national advertiser to spend in the millions of dollars for one 30-second commercial to be produced. Add more millions on top of that if celebrity talent is utilized.

Credibility and clutter are other disadvantages. Consumers have become increasingly skeptical about advertising messages and tend to resent advertisers attempt to persuade. Advertising is everywhere, from network television, to daily newspapers, to roadside billboards, to golf course signs, to stickers on fruit in grocery stores. Clutter encourages consumers to ignore many advertising messages. New media are emerging, such as DVRs (digital video recorders) which allow consumers to record programs and then skip commercials, and satellite radio which provides a majority of its channels advertising free.

Public relations is defined as a management function which identifies, establishes, and maintains mutually beneficial relationships between an organization and the publics upon which its success or failure depends. Whereas advertising is a one-way communication from sender (the marketer) to the receiver (the consumer or the retail trade), public relations considers multiple audiences (consumers, employees, suppliers, vendors, etc.) and uses two-way communication to monitor feedback and adjust both its message and the organizations actions for maximum benefit. A primary tool used by public relations practitioners is publicity. Publicity capitalizes on the news value of a product, service, idea, person or event so that the information can be disseminated through the news media. This third party endorsement by the news media provides a vital boost to the marketing communication message: credibility. Articles in the media are perceived as being more objective than advertisements, and their messages are more likely to be absorbed and believed. For example, after the CBS newsmagazine60 Minutesreported in the early 1990s that drinking moderate amounts of red wine could prevent heart attacks by lowering cholesterol, red wine sales in the United States increased 50 percent. Another benefit publicity offers is that it is free, not considering the great amount of effort it can require to get out-bound publicity noticed and picked up by media sources.

Public relations role in the promotional mix is becoming more important because of what Philip Kotler describes as an over communicated society. Consumers develop communication-avoidance routines where they are likely to tune out commercial messages. As advertising loses some of its cost-effectiveness, marketers are turning to news coverage, events, and community programs to help disseminate their product and company messages. Some consumers may also base their purchase decisions on the image of the company, for example, how environmentally responsible the company is. In this regard, public relations plays an important role in presenting, through news reports, sponsorships, advertorials (a form of advertising that instead of selling a product or service promotes the companys views regarding current issues), and other forms of communication, what the company stands for.

Direct marketing, the oldest form of marketing, is the process of communicating directly with target customers to encourage response by telephone, mail, electronic means, or personal visit. Users of direct marketing include retailers, wholesalers, manufacturers, and service providers, and they use a variety of methods including direct mail, telemarketing, direct-response advertising, online computer shopping services, cable shopping networks, and infomercials. Traditionally not viewed as an element in the promotional mix, direct marketing represents one of the most profound changes in marketing and promotion in the last 25 years. Aspects of direct marketing, which includes direct response advertising and direct mail advertising as well as the various research and support activities necessary for their implementation, have been adopted by virtually all companies engaged in marketing products, services, ideas, or persons.

Direct marketing has become an important part of many marketing communication programs for three reasons. First, the number of two-income households has increased dramatically. About six in every ten women in the United States work outside the home. This has reduced the amount of time families have for shopping trips. Secondly, more shoppers than ever before rely on credit cards for payment of goods and services. These cashless transactions make products easier and faster to purchase. Finally, technological advances in telecommunications and computers allow consumers to make purchases from their homes via telephone, television, or computer with ease and safety. These three factors have dramatically altered the purchasing habits of American consumers and made direct marketing a growing field worldwide.

Direct marketing allows a company to target more precisely a segment of customers and prospects with a sales message tailored to their specific needs and characteristics. Unlike advertising and public relations, whose connections to actual sales are tenuous or nebulous at best, direct marketing offers accountability by providing tangible results. The economics of direct marketing have also improved over the years as more information is gathered about customers and prospects. By identifying those consumers they can serve more effectively and profitably, companies may be more efficient in their marketing efforts. Whereas network television in the past offered opportunities to reach huge groups of consumers at a low cost per thousand, direct marketing can reach individual consumers and develop a relationship with each of them.

Research indicates that brands with strong brand equity are more successful in direct marketing efforts than little-known brands. Direct marketing, then, works best when other marketing communication such as traditional media advertising supports the direct marketing effort.

Direct marketing has its drawbacks also. Just as consumers built resistance to the persuasive nature of advertising, so have they with direct marketing efforts. Direct marketers have responded by being less sales oriented and more relationship oriented. Also, just as consumers grew weary of advertising clutter, so have they with the direct marketing efforts. Consumers are bombarded with mail, infomercials, and telemarketing pitches daily. Some direct marketers have responded by regarding privacy as a customer service benefit. Direct marketers must also overcome consumer mistrust of direct marketing efforts due to incidents of illegal behavior by companies and individuals using direct marketing. The U.S. Postal Service, the Federal Trade Commission, and other federal and state agencies may prosecute criminal acts. The industry then risks legislation regulating the behavior of direct marketers if it is not successful in self-regulation. The Direct Marketing Association, the leading trade organization for direct marketing, works with companies and government agencies to initiate self-regulation. In March of 2003 the National Do Not Call Registry went into affect whereby consumers added their names to a list that telemarketers had to eliminate from their out-bound call database.

Database marketing is a form of direct marketing that attempts to gain and reinforce sales transactions while at the same time being customer driven. Successful database marketing continually updates lists of prospects and customers by identifying who they are, what they are like, and what they are purchasing now or may be purchasing in the future. By using database marketing, marketers can develop products and/or product packages to meet their customers needs or develop creative and media strategies that match their tastes, values, and lifestyles. Like IMC, database marketing is viewed by many marketers as supplanting traditional marketing strategies and is a major component of most IMC programs.

At the core of database marketing is the idea that market segments are constantly shifting and changing. People who may be considered current customers, potential customers, and former customers and people who are likely never to be customers are constantly changing. By identifying these various segments and developing a working knowledge of their wants, needs, and characteristics, marketers can reduce the cost of reaching non-prospects and build customer loyalty. Perhaps the most important role of database marketing is its ability to retain customers. The cumulative profit for a five-year loyal customer is between seven and eight times the first-year profit.

Since database marketing is expensive to develop and complex to implement effectively, companies considering database marketing should consider three important questions. First, do relatively frequent purchasers or high dollar volume purchasers for the brand exist? Secondly, is the market diverse enough so that segmenting into subgroups would be beneficial? Finally, are there customers that represent opportunities for higher volume purchases?

Sales promotions are direct inducements that offer extra incentives to enhance or accelerate the products movement from producer to consumer. Sales promotions may be directed at the consumer or the trade. Consumer promotions such as coupons, sampling, premiums, sweepstakes, price packs (packs that offer greater quantity or lower cost than normal), low-cost financing deals, and rebates are purchase incentives in that they induce product trial and encourage repurchase. Consumer promotions may also include incentives to visit a retail establishment or request additional information. Trade promotions include slotting allowances (buying shelf space in retail stores), allowances for featuring the brand in retail advertising, display and merchandising allowances, buying allowances (volume discounts and other volume-oriented incentives), bill back allowances (pay-for-performance incentives), incentives to salespeople, and other tactics to encourage retailers to carry the item and to push the brand.

Two perspectives may be found among marketers regarding sales promotion. First, sales promotion is supplemental to advertising in that it binds the role of advertising with personal selling. This view regards sales promotion as a minor player in the marketing communication program. A second view regards sales promotion and advertising as distinct functions with objectives and strategies very different from each other. Sales promotion in this sense is equal to or even more important than advertising. Some companies allocate as much as 75 percent of their advertising/promotion dollars to sales promotion and just 25 percent to advertising. Finding the right balance is often a difficult task. The main purpose of sales promotion is to spur action. Advertising sets up the deal by developing a brand reputation and building market value. Sales promotion helps close the deal by providing incentives that build market volume.

Sales promotions can motivate customers to select a particular brand, especially when brands appear to be equal, and they can produce more immediate and measurable results than advertising. However, too heavy a reliance on sales promotions results in deal-prone consumers with little brand loyalty and too much price sensitivity. Sales promotions can also force competitors to offer similar inducements, with sales and profits suffering for everyone.

Sponsorships, or event marketing, combine advertising and sales promotions with public relations. Sponsorships increase awareness of a company or product, build loyalty with a specific target audience, help differentiate a product from its competitors, provide merchandising opportunities, demonstrate commitment to a community or ethnic group, or impact the bottom line. Like advertising, sponsorships are initiated to build long-term associations. Organizations sometimes compare sponsorships with advertising by using gross impressions or cost-per-thousand measurements. However, the value of sponsorships can be very difficult to measure. Companies considering sponsorships should consider the short-term public relations value of sponsorships and the long-term goals of the organization. Sports sponsorships make up about two-thirds of all sponsorships.

Exhibits, or trade shows, are hybrid forms of promotion between business-to-business advertising and personal selling. Trade shows provide opportunities for face-to-face contact with prospects, enable new companies to create a viable customer base in a short period of time, and allow small and midsize companies that may not be visited on a regular basis by salespeople to become familiar with suppliers and vendors. Because many trade shows generate media attention, they have also become popular venues for introducing new products and providing a stage for executives to gain visibility.

Personal selling includes all person-to-person contact with customers with the purpose of introducing the product to the customer, convincing him or her of the products value, and closing the sale. The role of personal selling varies from organization to organization, depending on the nature and size of the company, the industry, and the products or services it is marketing. Many marketing executives realize that both sales and non-sales employees act as salespeople for their organization in one way or another. One study that perhaps supports this contention found that marketing executives predicted greater emphasis being placed on sales management and personal selling in their organization than on any other promotional mix element. These organizations have launched training sessions that show employees how they act as salespeople for the organization and how they can improve their interpersonal skills with clients, customers, and prospects. Employee reward programs now reward employees for their efforts in this regard.

Personal selling is the most effective way to make a sale because of the interpersonal communication between the salesperson and the prospect. Messages can be tailored to particular situations, immediate feedback can be processed, and message strategies can be changed to accommodate the feedback. However, personal selling is the most expensive way to make a sale, with the average cost per sales call ranging from $235 to $332 and the average number of sales calls needed to close a deal being between three and six personal calls.

Sales and marketing management classifies salespersons into one of three groups: creative selling, order taking, and missionary sales reps. Creative selling jobs require the most skills and preparation. They are the point person for the sales function. They prospect for customers, analyze situations, determine how their company can satisfy wants and needs of prospects, and, most importantly, get an order. Order takers take over after the initial order is received. They handle repeat purchases (straight rebuys) and modified rebuys. Missionary sales reps service accounts by introducing new products, promotions, and other programs. Orders are taken by order takers or by distributors.

Just as direct marketing has become a prominent player in the promotional mix, so too has the Internet. Virtually unheard of in the 1980s, the 1990s saw this new medium explode onto the scene, being adopted by families, businesses and other organizations more quickly than any other medium in history. Web sites provide a new way of transmitting information, entertainment, and advertising, and have generated a new dimension in marketing: electronic commerce. E-commerce is the term used to describe the act of selling goods and services over the Internet. In other words, the Internet has become more that a communication channel; it is a marketing channel itself with companies such as , CDNow, eBay, and others selling goods via the Internet to individuals around the globe. In less than 10 years advertising expenditures on the Internet will rival those for radio and outdoor. Public relations practitioners realize the value that web sites offer in establishing and maintaining relationships with important publics. For example, company and product information can be posted on the companys site for news reporters researching stories and for current and potential customers seeking information. Political candidates have web sites that provide information about their background and their political experience.

The interactivity of the Internet is perhaps its greatest asset. By communicating with customers, prospects, and others one-on-one, firms can build databases that help them meet specific needs of individuals, thus building a loyal customer base. Because the cost of entry is negligible, the Internet is cluttered with web sites. However, this clutter does not present the same kind of problem that advertising clutter does. Advertising and most other forms of promotion assume a passive audience that will be exposed to marketing communication messages via the mass media or mail regardless of their receptivity. Web sites require audiences who are active in the information-seeking process to purposely visit the site. Therefore, the quality and freshness of content is vital for the success of the web site.

Marketing communication has become an integral part of the social and economic system in the United States. Consumers rely on the information from marketing communication to make wise purchase decisions. Businesses, ranging from multinational corporations to small retailers, depend on marketing communication to sell their goods and services. Marketing communication has also become an important player in the life of a business. Marketing communication helps move products, services, and ideas from manufacturers to end users and builds and maintains relationships with customers, prospects, and other important stakeholders in the company. Advertising and sales promotion will continue to play important roles in marketing communication mix. However, marketing strategies that stress relationship building in addition to producing sales will force marketers to consider all the elements in the marketing communication mix. In the future new information gathering techniques will help marketers target more precisely customers and prospects using direct marketing strategies. New media technologies will provide businesses and consumers new ways to establish and reinforce relationships that are important for the success of the firm and important for consumers as they make purchase decisions. The Internet will become a major force in how organizations communicate with a variety of constituents, customers, clients, and other interested parties.

SEE ALSO:Communication;Marketing Concept and Philosophy;Marketing Research

Arens, William F.Contemporary Advertising.7th ed. Boston: Irwin/McGraw-Hill, 1998.

Belch, George E., and Michael A. Belch.Advertising and Promotion: An Integrated Marketing Communication Perspective.4th ed. Boston: Irwin/McGraw-Hill, 1998.

Cutlip, Scott M., Allen H. Center, and Glen M. Broom.Effective Public Relations.8th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1999.

Harris, Thomas L.Value-Added Public Relations: The Secret Weapon in Integrated Marketing.Chicago: NTC Books, 1998.

Manning, Gerald L. and Barry L. Reese.Selling Today: Building Quality Partnerships.7th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1998.

Weitz, Barton W., Stephen B. Castleberry, and John F. Tanner.Selling: Building Partnerships.3rd ed. Boston: Irwin/McGraw-Hill, 1998.

Is publicity also a part of Marketing Communication? How about organizing an event?

find some usefull information that can help you pass

this information may help me to get new strategy in developing my career in property agent area

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Examples of Advertising Objectives Strategi

Advertising helps companies meet a variety of business objectives.

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[Main Advertising Objectives] Three Main Advertising Objectives

[Goals] Goals & Objectives in Advertising

[Advertising Objectives Strategies] Advertising Objectives, Strategies & Tactics

[Advertising Strategies] Examples of Advertising Strategies

As the owner of a small business, you probably dont have the luxury of a large advertising budget. To make the most of your limited advertising dollars, you need to establish clear advertising objectives and make use of low-cost but effective advertising strategies. A number of possible objectives and strategies may be suitable for your business.

One advertising objective is to demonstrate the effectiveness of a product or its ease of use. A common example is the before and after technique, which shows how well a product cleans, improves appearances or enhances quality of life. If your business involves selling weight-loss products or systems, before/after photos can demonstrate their effectiveness. If you operate a hair salon, photos of satisfied clients can show off your skills to potential customers.

Businesses may use advertising for the objective of building a company or brand image. Insurance agencies often attempt to position themselves as trustworthy by guaranteeing that consumers can count on them in their time of need. Car dealers use advertising to establish a reputation for fairness and honesty. Retailers may attempt to create an image of always offering the lowest prices or providing the best service.

An advertising objective may be to alter the perceptions of the public. A business that has developed a reputation in the community for treating customers poorly can use advertising to tout its new customer-service policy. The owner of a restaurant that is perceived to serve an upscale clientele may advertise new menu choices and prices to appeal to a wider range of diners.

A typical small-business advertising strategy is to make use of special promotions. By developing an email database, you can send customers coupons or invite them to special sale events. Another technique is to attach coupons to receipts that allow for savings on future purchases.

Participating in blogs that pertain to your business is a strategy that allows you to interact with potential buyers. For example, if you sell products such as handmade crafts via your website, become active in craft-related blogs and include a link to your website in your signature line. You can also create a blog of your own.

Use a low-cost media strategy to reach a targeted group of customers. For example, if you operate a computer repair service, advertise in small community or penny-saver publications that are often delivered to residents in a specific geographic area for free. These publications typically charge less for advertising space than regular daily newspapers, and youll also attract the attention of other small-business owners who could make use of your services.

Chris Joseph writes for websites and online publications, covering business and technology. He holds a Bachelor of Science in marketing from York College of Pennsylvania.

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[Ten Promotional Strategies] Top Ten Promotional Strategies

[Examples] Examples of Marketing Objectives

[Advertising Techniques] 5 Most Common Advertising Techniques

[Different Types] What Are the Different Types of Advertising?

[Magazine Advertising Strategies] Magazine Advertising Strategies

[Public Relations Campaigns] Examples of Public Relations Campaigns

[Aims] Aims and Objectives of Advertising

[Promotional Strategies] Examples of Promotional Strategies in a Product

[Advertising Agencies] Advertising Agencies Objectives

[Advertising Plan] What Are the Elements of an Advertising Plan & an Advertising Strategy?

[SMART Goals] Examples of SMART Goals for Advertising

Coffee Bar

This sample marketing plan was created withMarketing Plan Prosoftware.

Colloquy Grog Shops strategy will be based on communicating Grog Shops value to the targeted segments. This will be done through a variety of methods. The first method will be strategically placed advertisements. One place that will beused for advertisements is the Willamette Weekly, the liberal arts magazine that details all of the entertainment in Portland. This will be the main source of advertisements because the demographics of their readership are fairly similar to Colloquy Grog Shops demographics.

Another source of marketing will be done with strategic relationships with companies that have similar customer demographics. One prime example is the Multnomah Athletic Club. While the clubs patrons are not necessarily overwhelmingly single, the rest of the demographics match up. The MAC is a fairly exclusive downtown athletic club that by virtue of the membership costs, attracts professionals. The strategic relationship with be mutually beneficial where both organizations will develop visibility for each other.

The other form of advertising will be using grassroots methods where customers will be given coupons for their friends to try Colloquy Grog Shop for the first time. The coupon will be an economic incentive for the newcomer to try Colloquy Grog Shop. The coupon also has the added force of a referral from a friend.

Get practical ideas and good models with dozens of examples of successful

marketing plans with Sales and Marketing Pro.

Colloquy Grog Shops mission is to provide a neighborhood bar/coffee shop where single people can meet. We exist to attract and maintain customers. When we adhere to this maxim, everything else will fall into place. Our services will exceed the expectations of our customers.

Develop brand awareness through a steady, month to month increase of new customers.

Develop an increase in sales while achieving a status quo state or decreasein marketing expenses.

Develop awareness of the structured conversation system measured by customers coming to the Grog Shop solely for meeting people.

A double digit growth rate for each future year.

Reduce the variable costs through efficiency gains.

Reach profitability within the first year.

Colloquy Grog Shops customers can be broken down into two groups, singles, and non-singles. The non-singles groupsare smaller than the singles groups by virtue of the fact that if you are meeting someone whom you already know, the two of you can come up with the topic of conversation yourself, therefore, Grog Shop offers this group less value. The demographics for the non-singles is similar to the singles, to be listed below. The larger group then is the singles. The demographics of the singles are:

this characteristic is intuitive since theunderlying element of Colloquy Grog Shop is thoughtful conversation, and most professionalsappreciate thought-provoking conversation.

this to a large degree is correlated to the fact that they are professional.

the largest group of singles looking for companions.

The Colloquy Grog Shop will position itself as a reasonably priced tapas/bar/coffee house that has an innovative, effective system for allowing single to meet each other.

The Colloquy Grog Shops positioning will leverage their competitive edge:

Aunique approach to getting singles together called the structured conversation system. This system was detailed in the Product and Services section, please refer to that section for moreinformation.

This system is a competitive edge because most bars/taverns do not have a niche that they areconcentrating on. While every bar or coffee shop has a certain flavor and that is why someone will choose one bar or another, the flavor is only surface deep. The business model of the establishment is to sell alcohol and provide a social setting. Beyond these two values, there is little other genuine value that the establishments try to provide.

Colloquy Grog Shop is distinguished by the fact that their business model concentrates on developing value for customers beyond serving drinks. The Grog Shop develops an effective, albeit inherently structured, social setting thatencourages meeting like-minded individuals. Providing the drinks isthe source of income, an ancillary part of the business model. Generating value for the customers is the main focus, if the customers are happy then the revenue will follow (assuming of course that proper marketing and financial controls are employed). Concentrating on the clients needs beyond serving alcohol is the distinguishing characteristic that will allow Colloquy Grog Shopto rapidly gain market share.

The single objective is to position the Colloquy Grog Shop as the premier place for young professional singles to meet like-minded individuals. The marketing strategy will seek to first create customer awareness regarding their services offered, develop that customer base, and work toward building customer loyalty and referrals.

The message Colloquy Grog Shop will seek to communicate is that The Grog Shop is THE place to meet intelligent singles. This message will be communicated through a variety of methods. The first method will be advertisements. The bulk of the advertisements will be in the Willamette Weekly, a weekly entertainment guide in Portland that has impressive readership numbers for the desired target population.

Another method will be through establishing strategic relationships with companies that have similar demographics such as the Multnomah Athletic Club. Establishing a mutually beneficial relationship will allow both organizations to develop visibility for each other.

The other form of advertising will be using grassroots methods where customers will be given coupons for their friends to try Colloquy Grog Shop for the first time. The coupon will be an economic incentive for the newcomer to try Colloquy Grog Shop. The coupon also has the added force of a referral from a friend.

Colloquy Grog Shops marketing mix is comprised of these following approaches to pricing, distribution, advertising and promotion, and customer service.

the pricing scheme is based on standard industry practices.

all services and products will be distributed from Colloquy Grog Shops retail space.

the most successful advertising will be with Willamette Weekly. Additionally, strategic relationships will be developed with companies such as Multnomah Athletic Club as well as use of a grassroots promotion system.

obsessive customer attention is the mantra. The Grog Shops philosophy is to do whatever needs to be done to impress the customer. While this could reduce short-term profits, it will strengthen long-term profitability.

During the initial phases of the marketing plan development, several focus groups were held to gain insight into a variety of likely customers. These focus groups provided useful insight into the decision making process of these consumers.

An additional source of dynamicmarket researchis a feedback system based on a suggestion card system. The suggestion cardhas several statements that patrons are asked to rate in terms of a given scale. There are also several open ended questions that allow the customer to freely offer constructive criticism or praise. The Grog Shop will work hard to implement reasonable suggestions in order to improve their service offerings as well as show their committment to the customer that their suggestions are valued.

The last source of market research will be competitive analysis. This will be done by regularly visiting competitors and analyzing their service offerings.

Getting ready to create a marketing plan?

Get practical ideas and good models with dozens

of examples of successful marketing plans

Advertising in video games

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article includes alist of references, but

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Advertising using gamesis a long-standing practice in thevideo game industry. Various methods have been used to integrateadvertisinginto video games to advertise products, organizations or viewpoints.[1]

The advergames sector reached $207million in 2007.[2]

Some companies and organizations expressly commission video games to promote a product or service. These games have been referred to as advergames (aportmanteauof advertising and gaming) a term that was coined in January 2000 by Anthony Giallourakis, and later mentioned byWireds Jargon Watch column in 2001.[3]With the growth of the internet, advergames have proliferated, often becoming the most visited aspect of brand websites and becoming an integrated part of brand media planning in an increasingly fractured media environment. Advergames theoretically promote repeated traffic to websites and reinforce brands. Users choosing to register to be eligible for prizes can help marketers collect customer data. Gamers may also invite their friends to participate, which could assist promotion byword of mouth, orviral marketing.

Games for advertising are sometimes classified as a type ofserious game, as these games have a strong educational or training purpose other than pure entertainment.[4]

Other methods of advertising in video games include product placement being integrated into in-game environments[5]and companies/organizations sponsoring commercial games or other game-related content.

While other categories[6]have been proposed, advertising in video games normally falls into one of three categories which are derived from a historical categorization technique normally applied to traditional media. These include both through-the-line (TTL) and below-the-line (BTL) marketing strategies.

AnAdidasbillboard is displayed in the foreground of the 1994 video game

(also, the electronic board that appears with every goal scored sometimes readsPanasonic).

Examples of marketing in video games includebrand integrationembedded marketingrecruitment toolsedutainment, and traditionalin-game advertising.

Another video game advertising technique consists of advertising within a game itself. Since the intent of in-game advertising is typically commercial rather than political, some consider such advertisements to make up a category of their own. In-game advertising is similar to subtle advertising in films, where the advertising content is within the world of the movie. Thusbillboardsstorefrontspostersapparelvehiclesweaponsfliers, sponsored product placement, and the interplay between the player and these elements in the game allow for a great degree of virtual advertisement. Examples include billboards advertising for (and product placement of)Bawlsenergy drink inFallout: Brotherhood of Steel, and billboards forAdidassportswear inFIFA International Soccer.

The principal advantage of product placement in in-games advertising is visibility and notoriety. For advertisers an ad may be displayed multiple times and a game may provide an opportunity to ally a products brand image with the image of the game. Such examples include the use Sobe drink in Tom Clancys Splinter Cell: Double Agent.

For some players, digital games are one of their primary forms ofmedia consumption. Game playing is considered active media consumption, providing for unique opportunities for advertisers. While product placement in film and television is fairly common, this type of in-game advertising has only recently become common in games. The effectiveness of such advertising is debated by several scholars. Yanget al.found some types of recognition were low among college students, although players did retain word fragments in sports games. Grace and Coyle found that 35% of players could recall advertised brands in a controlled study of car racing games.

According toForbes, In-game advertising is expected to reach $7.2billion in 2016[7]since it is embedded in the entertainment as opposed to interruptive commercials which are skipped byDVRsor digital ads which can encounterad-blockingsoftware.

Examples of advergames includepromotional software.

By employing advergaming, a company typically provides interactive games on itswebsitein the hope that potential customers will be drawn to the game and spend more time on the website, or simply become more product aware. The games themselves usuallyfeature the companys products prominently(often as powerups or upgrades). These games may consist of reworked arcade classics or original programming, and they are usually designed forAdobe Flashor similar multimedia software.

The earliest custom video games featuring integrated brand messages were developed in the era before substantial penetration of the World Wide Web and were distributed onfloppy disk. These games were typically of a higher quality than the modern flash games and were distributed for free, often bundled with other products from the company advertised for. The first floppy disk advergames were developed to serve dual purposesas promotional incentives that drive response and as media that deliver awareness. American Home FoodsChef BoyardeeCoca-Cola, andSamsungbrands issued the first-ever floppy-disk advergames.[8]Other early brands to use the format wereReebokGeneral Millsthe GapandTaco Bellwhich distributed games as kids premiums.[8]The first in-box CD-ROM cereal box advergames were General MillsChex Quest(promoting theChexbrand) and General MillsAll-Star baseball(starring Trix Rabbit and his friends playing baseball againstMajor Leagueteams and stars).

The subjects advertised for may be commercial, political, or educational in nature. Commercial examples are numerous and include advergames funded byPepsi7 UpNFLFormula One, and most recentlyBurger King. Political/military examples of BTL advergames includerecruitment toolslikeAmericas Army, intended to boost recruitment for theUnited States Army, andSpecial Force, intended to promoteMuslimresistance to the state ofIsrael. Educational advergaming is closely related to theSerious gamesinitiative and falls under eitherEdumarket gamingoredutainment. Examples includeFood Force(made by theUnited NationsWorld Food Program) andUrban Jungle, an educational traffic simulation.

Examples ofTTLadvertising in games include link-chases,ARGs, andviral marketing.

A rare form of advertising in video games, TTL marketing in games involve the use ofwithin the game designed to induce the player to visit a webpage which then contains BTL advertisements. The technique used to tempt the player into visiting the intended URL varies from game to game. In games likePikmin 2, the player is given a cryptic message with an accompanying URL designed to pique the curiosity of the player. In games such asEnter the Matrix,Year Zero,I Love Bees, andLost Experience, URLs make up a part of the background of the game such that certain plot details can only be learned by following the link given in the game. The knowledge of such plot details are typically not required to complete the game, but make for a fuller story for fans. Websites of this nature often lead players on to other links which again lead to further links, thus earning these games the label link-chases. The tradeoff for TTL advertisers is that though use of the internet to find out extra things about a game might be enjoyable, gamers will not enjoy being given too much of a run-around with too obtrusive advertising to obtain important details about the game. In another form, the URL might be part of a stage where a player can see it but it does not affect the plot. For example, in Super Monkey Ball 2, there is a stage where you can see clearly written on an obstacle a URL and the stages name is even the word URL.

A recent bill was proposed to the senate about using information that is used through advergaming or other online advertisement to market to children. Some games ask children to fill out a survey of the name, gender and age. This bill would prevent these companies from using this information to change the game to target a certain age bracket. Wall Street Journal states that theDo Not Track Kids Act of 2011as new legislation, among other things, would prohibit companies from using or providing to third parties personal information of those under 18 for targeted marketing purposes. Senator Barton says, We have reached a troubling point in the state of business when companies that conduct business online are so eager to make a buck, they resort to targeting our children, said Senator Barton.[10]

TheUniversity of Baths Institute for Policy Research and School of Management carried out research into advergame use in marketing to children in the United Kingdom and used the findings of its research to call for urgent government action to protect children from the subconscious effects of advergames.[11]The Universitys research suggested that children as old as 15 did not recognise that advergames were adverts and their food choices were influenced without their conscious awareness.[12]

MattelM Networkdivision released the promogame

for theAtari 2600andIntellivisionin 1983. The game was originally available only viamail orderby sending inUPC symbolsfromKool-Aidcontainers, but later became available for retail purchase.

Purinahad a mail-in offer for the Atari 2600 game

for customers ofChuck Wagon dog foodin 1983.

Johnson & Johnsonreleased an Atari 2600 game called

In November 2006,Burger Kingbegan selling three advergamingXboxandXbox 360titles for an additional $3.99 ($4.99 in Canada) each with anyvalue meal. Known as theKing Gamesseries, these games include

(Xbox 360, 2006). They were all developed byDivision and were the best selling games of the 2006 holiday season.

More than 3.2million copies are believed to have been sold in the US and Canada alone.

Cineplex Entertainmentfeatures an advergame open to the public, known as Top Popper during non-contest periods and Peel and Pop during contest periods. In the cinemas, there is a TimePlay advergame that plays before the show.

(online, 2008) includes both ATL- and BTL-form advergaming.BMWworked with10tacle Studios

game, a race simulation game, to showcase the 2008BMW M3.

Life Saverslaunched the webs first major advergaming portal,Candystand,

in March 1997. The website was acquired from theWrigley Companyby Funtank in August 2008 and hosts advergames for a broad range of brands.

. Archived fromthe originalon 2014-03-22

Melissa Campanelli (March 6, 2008).eMarketer: In-Game Advertising Spending to Reach $650 million in 2012.

Ernest Adams (2009-07-09).Sorting Out the Genre Muddle. Gamasutra

Six of the best product placement video games.

What Kind of Advergame is it? – Four Categories That Make Actual Sense. Sneaky Games. April 10, 2009. Archived fromthe originalon April 28, 2011

Tassi, Paul.Analyst Says Video Game Advertising Will Double by 2016

Justin Davis (2006-01-16).Dunkin for Advergames. Gamedaily.com

Advergames, Viral games, and online flash games design Front Network.

Steve Stecklow, & Julia Angwin. (2011, May 7). Corporate News: House Releases Do Not Track Bill. Wall Street Journal (Eastern Edition), p. B.3. Retrieved March 8, 2012, from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID: 2339454191).

Hang, H. (December 2012).Advergames: its not childs play

Racing the Beam: The Atari Video Computer System

.MIT Press. p.124.ISBN0-262-01257-X.

How to Do Things with Videogames (Electronic Mediations)

. University of Minnesota Press. p.68.ISBN978-0-8166-7647-7.

Internet Archive Wayback Machine. web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 2007-09-30

CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)

de beste bron van informatie over Gtr Gtr2.Deze website is te koop!. 10tacle.com

Games at Candystand.com Play Free Online Games. Candystand.com.Archivedfrom the original on 22 June 2010

CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown

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