Do we need different types of tenure? On Adam Grant in

Give and Take: A Revolutionary Approach to Success), examines the current tenure system in American universities and the skewed incentives they provide for continued work after tenure:

Its no secret that tenured professors cause problems in universities. Some choose to rest on their laurels, allowing their productivity to dwindle. Others develop tunnel vision about research, inflicting misery on students who suffer through their classes.

Instead of abolishing tenure, what if we restructured it? The heart of the problem is that weve combined two separate skill sets into a single job. We ask researchers to teach, and teachers to do research, even though these two capabilities have surprisingly little to do with each other.

Later in the piece he recommends three different kinds of tenure: research-only, teaching-only, and research-and-teaching, each tailored to a professors talents and drives.

Some universities currently have similar positions: some haveresearch professors, for instance, and most have some version of alecturer. As far as Im aware, however, the lecturer position, while it may carry some form of tenure, is rarely considered equivalent to professor positions, which demeans the devotion of ones time primarily to teaching. So Grants proposal would certainly be an improvement over the status quo in this regard.

Having three types of tenure would allow for more delineation of job responsibilities, improve the targeting motivation (as Grant argues), and provide more precise guidance to committees charged with granting reappointment, tenure, and promotion. (As chair of my department I serve on such a committee at my college.)

Ideally, however, a scheme like this would not be necessary. Since evaluation occurs at the level of departmental and college-wide tenure-and-promotion committees, they can lead in reforming this process (with changes in motivation flowing down from there). They should allow for faculty to have different orientations regarding teaching, research,andservice (the often-forgotten aspect of a professors job). They should be willing to assess each faculty member according to his or her particular mix, as long as they remained productive in whatever way they chose to further the mission of the college or university. Fantastic instructors should be valued as much as prolific and acclaimed researchers, as well as active campus citizensandthe faculty members who successfully combine two or even all three of these roles.

As I advocate for in my committee, all three roles are essential to a flourishing universitybut not every faculty member should be expected to excel in all. As economists know, there can be enormous benefits to specialization of labor, and I would like to think these benefits can be realized without creating additional bureaucracy and proliferation of tenure-tracks. While I agree with Grants concerns, I would prefer to encourage pluralitywithinthe existing tenure system rather than making it more complicated. But this relies on those responsible for making personnel decisions to adopt this pluralistic mindsetand if they cant (or wont), then multiple tenure tracks may be the next best option.

(By the way, for a humorous look at this topic, seeThe Onions recent post here.)

Posted byMark D. Whiteon February 6, 2014 at 08:26 AM inAcademiaEducationNewspapersOp-edsPosts by Mark D. WhitePermalink

You can follow this conversation by subscribing to thecomment feedfor this post.

I entirely agree. Pluralism within the existing tenure system addresses several concerns. One is the life cycle. When I was starting out my university was mostly teaching oriented. I taught many different sections each year. I also had an enormous service load. After getting tenure my research took off as the university was willing to lower loads on those doing research. Faculty negotiate what they think their contribution can be, and get different teaching loads and different performance evaluations, accordingly. A good mix of teachers and scholars can result, but one does not have to be locked into just one role over ones career.

One size does not fit all. At the same time, I dont like a two- or three- tier system in which faculty members are accorded different status. This degrades the system of self governance.

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Explain Different Types Of Output Devices

Super Easy Short Computer Notes To Improve Computer Literacy and Your IT Skills

Out put devices are used to display results of processing to the user. They perform the following functions:

Examples include: Monitor, printer, plotter, speaker, and multimedia projector.

Monitor is the most commonly used output device used to display results of processing. It has a TV like shape. Pictures on monitor are formed with picture elements called PIXEL. Monitors may be Monochrome that will display results in Black & White. Color Monitors are also available. They display results in multi colors. Monitor produces soft copy output.

Printers are used to produce hard copy out put. They print processing results on paper. Printers are divided into two main categories:

These printers print with striking of hammers or pins on ribbon. For example Dot Matrix printer and daisy wheel printers are impact printers.

These printers do not use striking mechanism for printing. They use electrostatic and laser technology. Quality and speed of these printers is better than Impact printers. For example Laser printer and Inkjet printers are non-impact printers.

Speakers and head sets produce sound output. We can listen recorded voices, sounds or music with the help of speaker or headset. Speaker produces sound output with the help of sound card.

A plotter is an output device used to produce image-quality graphics in a variety of colors. Plotters are used to print large maps, architectural drawings, graphs and charts. Plotters are used to draw different designs of buildings or internal structure of machines. Plotters offer the fastest way to efficiently produce very large drawings or color high-resolution graphics. Engineers and Architects use plotters.

Multimedia projector is used to produce computer output on a big screen. These are used in meeting rooms or in classrooms of educational institutes. Since the output produced by multimedia projector is displayed on a large screen, it can be viewed by a large number of people in a hall, meeting / conference room or a class room. Mostly teachers use data projectors in class rooms for delivering lectures ( a use of audio visual aids technology)

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The current Cheetos logo, used since 2002.

Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Cyprus, Egypt, France, Greece, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Lebanon, Lithuania, Macedonia, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, North America, Pakistan, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, South Africa, South America, South Korea, Turkey, Spain, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States

Cheetos(formerly styled asChee-tosuntil 1998) is a brand ofcheese-flavored puffed cornmealsnacks made byFrito-Lay, a subsidiary ofPepsiCoFritoscreatorCharles Elmer Doolininvented Cheetos in 1948, and began national distribution in the U.S. The initial success of Cheetos was a contributing factor to the merger between The Frito Company and H.W. Lay & Company in 1961 to form Frito-Lay. In 1965 Frito-Lay became a subsidiary of The Pepsi-Cola Company, forming PepsiCo, the current owner of the Cheetos brand.

In 2010, Cheetos was ranked as the top selling brand of cheese puffs in its primary market of the United States; worldwide the annual retail sales totaled approximately $4billion. The originalCrunchy Cheetosare still in production but the product line has since expanded to include 21 different types of Cheetos inNorth Americaalone. As Cheetos are sold in more than 36 countries, the flavor and composition is often varied to match regional taste and cultural preferencessuch asSavory American CreaminChina, andStrawberry CheetosinJapan.1

Cheetos were invented in 1948 by Fritos creator Charles Elmer Doolin, who cooked early test batches in the Frito CompanysDallasTexas-based research and development kitchen. The cheese-flavored snack sold quickly, but Doolin did not have the production or distribution capacity to support a nationwide launch. This led Doolin to partner with potato chip businessman Herman W. Lay for marketing and distribution, and Cheetos were introduced nationally in the U.S. in 1948 along with a potato product called Fritatos.2The success of Cheetos prompted Doolin and Lay to merge their two companies in 1961, forming Frito-Lay Inc.3At the time, Cheetos was one of four large snack food brands produced by the company, which had annual revenues of $127million.4Frito-Lay merged with the Pepsi-Cola Company to form PepsiCo in 1965, prompting further distribution of Cheetos outside of North America.5

While Cheetos was the first snack food of its kind, competing products in the snack food category have since emergedincludingUtzCheese Curls,HerrsCheese Curls and. Most of the competing cheese-flavored snacks are distributed in specific regions of the U.S., and as of 2010 Cheetos remains as the top-selling cheese puff in America.36

As of 2011, Cheetos are produced, marketed and distributed under three different PepsiCo operating divisions:PepsiCo Americas Foods(which includesFrito-Layin the United States andCanada,7SabritasinMexico8and Latin Americas Foods inBrazilColombiaArgentinaVenezuelaandPeru.9),PepsiCo EuropeandPepsiCo Asia, Middle East & Africa.10PepsiCo also granted a license to theStrauss-Elite companyto distribute the Cheetos snack. In 2010, worldwide annual sales of Cheetos totaled approximately $4billion, making it the 11th-largest PepsiCo brand.10

The first Cheetos product wasCrunchy Cheetos, invented in 1948 inSan Antonio, Texas. Crunchy Cheetos remained the brands sole product for 23 years until the introduction ofCheetos Puffsin 1971. The baked varieties, otherwise known asBaked Cheetos, became available beginning in 2004. As of 2010, there are 21 different variants of Cheetos snacks distributed in the United States.11In addition to the original Crunchy Cheetos, Cheetos Puffs and Baked varieties are sold in alternate shape and flavor variationsincluding a spicy variety known asFlamin Hot Cheetos.12

Cheetos are among the snack varieties included in the Frito-LayMunchiessnack mix.

With the introduction ofFrito-LaysNatural Line, Cheetos Natural were introduced in the mid-2000s, with all natural ingredients, and natural, and real, Cheetos Natural are unique for Cheetos. They accompany others in theNaturalline, and are a direct competitor to other natural competitors, such asPirates Booty.

Cheetos first enteredBrazilin 1976,13followed by other countries such asAustraliaduring the 1980s.14In 1994, Cheetos became the first American brand of snack food to be made and distributed inChina.15As the distribution of Cheetos expanded outside the U.S. to include more than 36 different countries,16localized versions were produced to conform to regional tastes and cultural preferences.17

Frito-Lay conducted extensive testing before settling on flavors for the Chinese market, with ranch dressing, North Sea crab, smoked octopus and caramel being passed up for two flavors:Savory American CreamandZesty Japanese Steak.18These flavors were produced as the result of focus group testing, in which the original Crunchy Cheetos did not test as well.1819Strawberry Cheetos, a variation of the original Crunchy Cheetos dipped in a flavored icing, are produced and distributed inJapan.20Also produced in Japan areMountain Dew-flavored Cheetos.21In India,Cheetos Whooshare sold, made of ingredients such aswhole grainand vegetables.22In Pakistan Cheetos are available in six different flavors: Bites: Vegetable, Stars: Cream N Herb, Ocean Safari: Cheese, X & O: Spicy Twist, Red Flavoured Mast and Ketchup.23The sole Cheetos product produced in Australia isCheetos Cheese & Bacon Balls.24Cheetos come in all different colors.

In 2015, Cheetos rolled out a limited edition cinnamon sugar-flavored snack called Sweetos to US markets. Sweetos was the first sweet snack that Cheetos has released in the brands 67-year history.25

Cheetos are manufactured by blending corn and water. The germ of the corn is removed to prevent spoiling; the germless corn is then ground into cornmeal. Because the cornmeal lacks the nutrients provided by the germs, it is enriched by adding nutrients in order to increase its nutritional value. (Enriched cornmeal is found in the following flavors: Crunchy,26Puffs,27Flamin Hot Crunchy,2829Flamin Hot Puffs,30Flamin Hot Limon Crunchy,31XXTRA Flamin Hot Crunchy,32Reduced Fat Flamin Hot Puffs,33Reduced Fat Puffs,34and Cheddar Jalapeño Crunchy.35) The mixture is heated under pressure, and then extruded through a die. The texture of the snack is formed as a result of contact with hot air, causing steam in the mixture to expand and creating its characteristic texture. After oven-drying or frying, the product is then tumbled with the desired flavor components (the originalCrunchy Cheetosarefried). The process takes approximately 19 minutes and each half hour an in-house lab team inspects and taste-tests each batch. At this point, the result of the inspection is determined by comparing each batch to product sent from Frito-Lay headquarters.36Other flavor and format variations such asCheetos Puffs,Cheetos Paws,Cheetos Twists,Cheetos Balls, andCheetos Whirlsare all finished with a drying stage in large ovens.37As of 2010, Frito-Lay has 14 fried-Cheetos plants in 11 states throughout theUnited States.36

The first Cheetos mascot was the Cheetos Mouse, which debuted in 1971 using the slogansThe cheese that goes crunch!andHail Chee-sar!. The character was phased out around 1979.

The Cheetos brand is commonly recognized by association with its second and currentmascot, ananthropomorphicsly, smooth-voicednamedChester Cheetah. Chester first appeared in television commercials in 1986, known for concluding Cheetos advertisements withslogans, which have evolved over time. He used bothThe cheese that goes crunch!andIt aint easy bein cheesyas slogans from 1986 to 1997, and thenDangerously cheesyfrom 1997 onwards.38In 2003, Chester was first rendered as a computer-generated character in the United State, while continuing to appear in a traditionally-animated form in some other countries where the brand is sold.39

Beginning in 2008, Cheetos advertising and promotion broadened in regards to age appeal, with a revised focus on an adult demographic. In this personification, Chester speaks with amid-Atlantic accentand encourages people to use their Cheetos in acts of revenge or to solve problems.39In February 2009, Cheetos was the subject of its firstSuper Bowl commercial. In theUS$3million, 30 second advertisement, a loud, chatty woman is talking on her mobile phone at a restaurant. Chester the Cheetah persuades another customer to toss Cheetos onto the ground, attracting a flock of birds to drive away the obnoxious loud-talking customer.4041The scenario depicted in this commercial exemplifies the adult-oriented themes ofsubversionand revenge, which continue to be prevalent in Cheetos advertisements produced since 2008.39

On August 15, 2017, Frito-Lay announced the opening of its The Spotted Cheetahpop-up restaurantin New York, with dishes made with Cheetos with chefAnne Burrell. According to theWall Street Journal, the restaurants reserve spots quickly sold out.42

Cheetos have been the subject of public and media attention on multiple occasions due to the unpredictable shapes that form during the manufacturing process. Cheetos have been found in shapes which resembled the appearance of popular or historical figures. A single Cheeto described as being in the shape ofMichael Jacksondoing theMoonwalk Dancesold for $35.18 oneBayin the summer of 2009 at the time of Jacksons death, attracting national media coverage in the U.S.43A couple who found a Cheetos snack in a shape they described as resemblingJesus Christnicknamed it Cheesus and garnered media attention as a result of their consideration of selling on eBay.4445In 2016-7, Cheeto Jesus and variations thereon became a common nickname forDonald Trump.464748

Note that these are the main flavors available year-round worldwide, there are many other seasonal flavors, as well as differently shaped Cheetos.49

Strawberry Flavored Cheetos Seduce Sweet-Loving Snackers.

Corn, Potato Chip Packaging Big Business in San Antonio, Dallas Morning News, 22 May 1949, Section XVIII, page 8

Fernandez, Manny (3 August 2010).Cheese Whatevers, City Has Them by the Handful.

Frito-Lay, Inc. Company Profile for Students. HighBeam Research. 1 January 1999

Frito-Lay History. Frito-Lay North America, Inc

Saporito, Bill; Sarah Smith (21 December 1987).How Borden Milks Packaged Goods.

PepsiCo, Inc. (PEP) Company Description. Businessweek

Savage, Mark (14 February 1995).Circle of Fun.

PepsiCo Investors Corporate Profile. PepsiCo, Inc

. 25 December 2010. Archived fromthe original

Full List of Cheetos Products. Frito-Lay

Dont Miss: Flamin Hot Cheetos. 9 May 2006

Cheetos Australia. PepsiCo Australia & New Zealand. Archived fromthe originalon 17 September 2009

Chinese Cheetos. 27 November 2006

Cheetos Mystery Colorz Snacks Taste Cheesy Like Cheetos

. Frito-Lay North America. 7 January 2002

International directory of company histories

. Chicago: St. James Press.ISBN978-1-55862-391-0.

Zikmund, William G.; Barry B. Babin (2009).

. Cengage Learning. p.15.ISBN0324593759

Cheetos pull flavor switch for Chinese.

. NY Times News Service. 2 September 1994. p.2A

Move To Japan So You Can Eat Strawberry Cheetos. 28 January 2009

Horovitz, Bruce (15 August 2013).Pepsi-flavored Cheetos sell in Japan, but arent ready for U.S. (yet).

17 December 2010 at theWayback Machine.

Cheetos Pakistan Let The Fun Begin TVC 2015.

Cheetos Australia Product List. PepsiCo Australia & New Zealand

Horovitz, Bruce (21 January 2015).Cheetos to roll out Sweetos snacks.

CHEETOS® Crunchy Cheese Flavored Snacks.

CHEETOS® Puffs Cheese Flavored Snacks.

CHEETOS® Crunchy FLAMIN HOT® Cheese Flavored Snacks.

Whats Inside Flamin Hot Cheetos? Probably Something Spicy

CHEETOS® Puffs FLAMIN HOT® Cheese Flavored Snacks.

CHEETOS® Crunchy FLAMIN HOT® Limn Cheese Flavored Snacks.

CHEETOS® Crunchy XXTRA FLAMIN HOT® Cheese Flavored Snacks.

CHEETOS® Puffs FLAMIN HOT® Reduced Fat Cheese Flavored Snacks.

CHEETOS® Puffs Reduced Fat Cheese Flavored Snacks.

CHEETOS® Crunchy Cheddar Jalapeño Cheese Flavored Snacks.

Koerner, Brendan (24 May 2010).Making Cheetos: It Aint Easy Being Cheesy.

Cheetos Cheese Snacks Smiths Snackfood Company. Archived fromthe originalon 17 September 2009

Apply for a Trademark. Search a Trademark.

Stevenson, Seth (17 March 2008).Chesters Got a Brand-New Bag.

Wong, Emily (29 January 2009).Cheetos Joins Super Bowl Ad Parade.

Frito-Lay Puts Cheetos Brand in Bloggers Hands. 11 February 2009

Passy, Charles (August 15, 2017).You Cant Get a Table at Manhattans Cheetos Restaurant – The Spotted Cheetah pop-up eatery sold out all its reservations in just six hours.

. New York City, New York, United States

Stupid Investment of the Week. 3 July 2009

Couple finds Jesus in a bag of Cheetos. 19 May 2009

Jesus Cheeto: A Texas Couple Finds Jesus in a Cheese Snack

Judkis, Maura; Judkis, Maura (17 June 2016).Donald Trump as Cheeto Jesus, and the political legacy of a dusty orange snack via

GOP Operative Lashes Out At Party, Calls Trump Cheeto Jesus In Epic Tweetstorm. 16 June 2016 via Huff Post.

GOP consultant calls Trump Cheeto Jesus in epic tweetstorm.

CHEETOS® Crunchy Cheese Flavored Snacks.

The Smiths Snackfood Company brands

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