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embolizationthe process by which a blood vessel or organ is obstructed by a material mass

oleaginousmarked by an offensively ingratiating manner or quality

pansexualsexual desire or attraction…not limited to a particular gender identity or sexual orientation

symbiotean organism living in symbiosis

the transmission of evaluative or corrective information about an action, event, or process to the original or controlling source;

the partial reversion (seereversion3a) of the effects of a process to its source or to a preceding stage

the return to the input of a part of the output of a machine, system, or process (as for producing changes in an electronic circuit that improve performance or in an automatic control device that provide self-corrective action)

a rumbling, whining, or whistling sound resulting from an amplified or broadcast signal (such as music or speech) that has been returned as input and retransmitted

Seefeedbackdefined for English-language learners

The company uses customerfeedbackto improve its products.

He asked for somefeedbackfrom his boss.

The computer makes adjustments based onfeedbackfrom the sensors.

We were getting somefeedbackfrom the microphone.

As the first cinema in the Valley to have this technology and the second in the state, Aubey said

has been overwhelmingly positive and moviegoers are surprised in a great way.

OTOjOYs work, success is music to the ears of those with hearing loss,

In a relationship, Pisces must remember that their partners perceptions of reality are as worthy of contemplation as their own and that

What Your Zodiac Sign Says About Your Worst Relationship Habit,

from the community was extensive enough to lead the Lake Countys Planning, Building and Development Department to plan a second public information meeting about it, said Brittany Albrecht Sloan, the departments deputy director.

Proposed nine-lot subdivision in unincorporated Vernon Hills fuels residents concerns,

from students was so overwhelming that other teachers now want to give it a try.

Her students needed emotional support. Her new app could soon help all Dade kids. Miami Herald,

Thus far, 1600 employees have been trained, and the

from those sessions has been overwhelmingly positive.

NBC Is Taking Tom Brokaw, Matt Lauer Sexual Misconduct Accusations Very Seriously,

Thus far, 1600 employees have been trained, and the

from those sessions has been overwhelmingly positive.

Tom Brokaw calls harassment accusations a drive-by shooting,

at Macys has been largely positive, not everyone gave the product line a warm reception.

Muslim fashion designer creates conservative, affordable clothes,

The Mets-Phillies game was the first of the 25 games set to be aired on Facebook one per week and the early

Facebook Broadcast of Mets Game Runs Into Glitches and Complaints,

These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word feedback. Views expressed in the examples do not represent the opinion of Merriam-Webster or its editors.Send us feedback.

:helpful information or criticism that is given to someone to say what can be done to improve a performance, product, etc.

:something (such as information or electricity) that is returned to a machine, system, or process

:an annoying and unwanted sound caused by signals being returned to an electronic sound system

helpful information or criticism given to someone to indicate what can be done to improve something

the return to the input of part of the output of a machine, system, or process (as for producing changes in an electronic circuit that improve performance or in an automatic control device that provide self-corrective action)

the partial reversion of the effects of a process to its source or to a preceding stage

the return to a point of origin of evaluative or corrective information about an action or process

Seewords that rhyme withfeedbackSpanish Central:Translation offeedbackNglish:Translation offeedbackfor Spanish speakersBritannica English:Translation offeedbackfor Arabic article aboutfeedback

What made you want to look upfeedback? Please tell us where you read or heard it (including the quote, if possible).

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embolizationthe process by which a blood vessel or organ is obstructed by a material mass

oleaginousmarked by an offensively ingratiating manner or quality

pansexualsexual desire or attraction…not limited to a particular gender identity or sexual orientation

symbiotean organism living in symbiosis

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Giving Feedback

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Performance review. Does the mere mention of this event make your heart sink?

Employees and managers the world over dread this ritual and therein lays the main problem: We have institutionalized the giving and receiving of feedback. We save up our comments and document all the things we note about a persons performance. And then, like a big cat ready to pounce, the manager brings a hapless employee into the office and springs a years worth of constructive criticism onto him or her.

No wonder why this process is so unnerving and fear provoking. This is exactly the wrong emotional environment in which to discuss performance, introduce suggestions for improvement, and talk about goals for the future. This is a shame, because giving and receiving feedback is key to engaging your people and keeping them on track.

When done in the right way and with the right intentions, feedback can lead to outstanding performance. Employees have to know what they are doing well and not so well. For them to really hear your thoughts and suggestions on ways to improve, though, that feedback has to be delivered carefully and frequently.

Giving feedback is a skill. And like all skills, it takes practice to get it right. So, in this article and in the video, below, well give some tips on how you can give feedback constructively and effectively.

Watch this video to discover how to deliver feedback effectively.

We talk generally about feedback between a manager/supervisor and employee. However, feedback can, and should, be given up, down, and laterally. The same principles apply.

Before giving feedback, remind yourselfwhyyou are doing it. The purpose of giving feedback is to improve the situation or the persons performance. You wont accomplish that by being harsh, critical or offensive.

Youll likely get much more from people when your approach is positive and focused on improvement. Thats not to say feedback always has to be good, but it should be fair and balanced. Use tools like theFeedback Matrixand theLosada Ratioto help you get the exact balance right. (It should be noted tha,t though the statistics behind the Losada Ratio are in doubt, the principle is not.)

The closer to the event you address the issue, the better. Feedback isnt about surprising someone, so the sooner you do it, the more the person will be expecting it.

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Think of it this way: its much easier to provide feedback about a single, one-hour job that hasnt been done properly than it is to do so about a whole year of failed, one-hour jobs.

However, there is an exception if the situation involved is highly emotional. If this is the case, wait until everyone has calmed down before you engage in feedback. You cant risk letting yourself get worked up or you may something that you will regret later.

Feedback is a process that requires constant attention. When something needs to be said, say it. People then know where they stand all the time and there will be few surprises. Also, problems dont get out of hand. Itsnota once-a-year or a once-every-three-month event. Though this may be the timing of formal feedback; informal, simple feedback should be given much more often than this perhaps every week or even every day, depending on the situation.

With frequent, informal feedback like this, nothing said during formal feedback sessions should be unexpected, surprising or particularly difficult.

You dont want to read a script, but you do need to be clear about you are going to say. This will help you to stay on track and stick to the issues.

Tell the person exactly what he needs to improve. This ensures that you stick to facts and there is less room for ambiguity.

If you tell someone that she acted unprofessionally, what does that mean exactly? Was she too loud, too friendly, too casual, too flippant or too poorly dressed?

Remember to stick to what you know first hand: youll quickly find yourself on shaky ground if you start giving feedback based on other peoples views.

Try not to exaggerate to make a point. Avoid words like never, all, and always because the person will likely get defensive. Always discuss the direct impact of the behavior and dont get personal or seek to blame.

While public recognition is appreciated, public scrutiny is not.

Establish a safe place to talk where you wont be interrupted or overheard.

Give feedback fromyourperspective . This way you avoid labeling the person.

Say, I was angry and hurt when you criticized my report in front of my boss rather than You were insensitive yesterday.

A feedback session should discuss no more than two issues. Any more than that and you risk the person feeling attacked and demoralized.

You should also stick to behaviors the he can actually change or influence.

A good rule is start off with something positive. This helps put the person at ease. It will also allow her to see what success looks like and what steps she needs to take next time to get it right.

Try to end on a high note, too. Otherwise, she may be left feeling despondent and worthless.

Many people tend to overdo this and end up sandwiching the constructive feedback between too many positives. Then the takeaway message becomes, Gee, Im doing really well, instead of Im good at communicating with customers, but I need to bring my interpersonal skills with my co-workers up to that same level.

Make sure you both know what needs to be done to improve the situation. The main message should be that you care and want to help the person grow and develop. Set goals and make plans to monitor and evaluate his progress. Use theSMARTacronym and define specific steps and milestones, or theGROW modelto motivate him to deliver the change that you want.

You may not agree on everything, so it is a good idea to ask the person to give her perspective. Use phrases like, What is your reaction to this? or Is this a fair representation of what happened?

Listen actively to what she has to say and try to get her to offer some suggestions for improvement. This way she has an opportunity to own the solution and will be more likely to follow through with it. To avoid sounding like youre preaching, stay away from words like good, bad, must, need to, etc.

The whole purpose of feedback is to improve performance. You need to measure whether or not that is happening and then make adjustments as you go. Be sure to document your conversations and discuss what is working and what needs to be modified.

Its also important that you actively seek feedback fromyourboss, colleagues, and customers. See our article onGetting Feedbackfor more on this.

Feedback is a two way street. You need to know how to give it effectively and how to receive it constructively.

When you make a conscious choice to give and receive feedback on a regular basis you demonstrate that it is a powerful means of personal development and positive change.

Done properly, feedback need not be agonizing, demoralizing or daunting, and the more practice you get the better you will become at it. It may never be your favorite means of communicating with your team members, co-workers or your boss, but it does have the potential to make your workplace a much more productive and harmonious place to be.

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Thank you for your feedback. As an academic article, the link you provided is very revealing in the impact of feedback, both on the learner and the feedback provider.

The article holds some of the commonly held beliefs we have about feedback. It may be surprising to learn that current research challenges some of these beliefs (eg the sandwich approach; timing etc). Have a read of Molloy & Bouds article – see link.

Thanks for that feedback on our article on feedback! 😉

Hope you enjoy more of our resources to help you learn, develop and grow.

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Frequently asked questions about Feedback

What should I consider before rating a sellers performance?

Why are buyers who receive unpaid item strikes allowed to leave Feedback?

Why are sellers allowed to leave only positive Feedback for buyers?

What should I do if I have a problem with a buyer?

How do I protect myself from buyers who dont follow eBay policies, and what is eBay doing to protect me?

Now that Mutual Feedback Withdrawal no longer exists, is it still possible for buyers to change or withdraw their Feedback?

Sellers are encouraged to leave Feedback as soon as payment is received (or has cleared). That will start the Feedback process off on a good note.

Buyers should wait to leave Feedback for sellers until after they receive the item. If the item doesnt arrive, the buyer should double-check the shipping time in the item description and contact the seller if the package is clearly late. If the seller sent a tracking number, the buyer should check with the carrier to see when the item should arrive. Its important to take these steps before leaving Feedback.

Did the seller ship the item within the timeframe indicated in the listing? (Remember that international shipments may be subject to additional delays.)

If you communicated with the seller, were your questions or concerns addressed? Did the seller respond within a reasonable amount of time?

Because we dont know when a buyer has actually paid, buyers are allowed to continue using eBay as they normally would, and that includes leaving Feedback. However, eBay will remove any neutral or negative Feedback left by the buyer in any of these cases:

The response indicates that the buyer isnt following eBay guidelines (for example, the buyer ended up purchasing the item somewhere else).

Sellers used to be able to leave negative Feedback for buyers. Unfortunately, we found that when buyers had bad experiences with sellers, they were often reluctant to leave neutral or negative Feedback out of fear that the seller would retaliate by leaving negative Feedback for them. And when buyers did receive unfair negative Feedback, they usually decreased their shopping on eBay. Overall, it became clear that the fear of retaliatory negative Feedback made it more difficult for good sellers to distinguish themselves from not-so-good sellers, and made the Feedback system as a whole less reliable.

If you experience a problem with a buyer please report it to us using theseller reporting huband well follow up.

How do I protect myself from buyers who dont follow eBay policies, and what is eBay doing to protect me?

Specifying what types of buyers are allowed to purchase from you can be effective protection, so we encourage sellers to addbuyer requirementsto their listings. If you use Buy It Now, you can alsorequire buyers to pay immediatelyusing PayPal.

eBay is proactively educating buyers and taking action in cases of Feedback abuse. We also provide enhanced Feedback protection for unpaid items.

How that Mutual Feedback Withdrawal no longer exists, is it still possible for buyers to change or withdraw their Feedback?

Yes. Buyers canrevise Feedbacktheyve left for sellers in the case of a mistake. Unlike Mutual Feedback Withdrawal, buyers will be able to change the actual comment itself, not just withdraw the rating.

eBay will remove Feedback ratings and comments in certain limited situations. Please see theFeedback Withdrawal and Removal pageto review the guidelines for Feedback removal. If the Feedback you were left meets the guidelines, pleasereport it to us.

Read anote from eBays founder, Pierre Omidyar, outlining the philosophy, values, and benefits of the Feedback Forum.

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Sellers arent able to leave negative or neutral Feedback for buyers. That means sellers need other tools that will protect them against unfair treatment from buyers and bring those buyers to eBays attention.

Here are some ways sellers and eBay are working together to protect sellers reputations and promote a fair marketplace:

You can block buyers with too many policy violations, unpaid items, or who arent registered with PayPal. This can help you dramatically reduce your number of unpaid items. To access this tool, go to My eBay


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Sellers can use theseller reporting hubto report an unpaid item, Feedback extortion, or any other problem with a buyer. eBay investigates all reports and will remove any negative or neutral Feedback thats in violation of eBay policy.

In addition to removing Feedback left by buyers who dont respond to an unpaid item report, we also remove negative and neutral Feedback when there is a response but its clear that the buyer didnt intend to complete the transaction (for example, if they bought the item elsewhere or had a family emergency).

For example, eBay investigates buyers who leave positive Feedback but low Detailed Seller Ratings.

Buyers who are suspended for Unpaid Items or other policy violations arent allowed to leave negative or neutral Feedback. We remove all neutral or negative Feedback left by suspended buyers so it wont negatively affect sellers reputations.

For example, if there are problems with a purchase, we ask the buyer to contact the seller directly to try to work things out before leaving Feedback.

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Seven Keys to Effective Feedback

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Advice, evaluation, gradesnone of these provide the descriptive information that students need to reach their goals. What is true feedbackand how can it improve learning?

Who would dispute the idea that feedback is a good thing? Both common sense and research make it clear: Formative assessment, consisting of lots of feedback and opportunities to use that feedback, enhances performance and achievement.

Yet even John Hattie (2008), whose decades of research revealed that feedback was among the most powerful influences on achievement, acknowledges that he has struggled to understand the concept (p. 173). And many writings on the subject dont even attempt to define the term. To improve formative assessment practices among both teachers and assessment designers, we need to look more closely at just what feedback isand isnt.

The termfeedbackis often used to describe all kinds of comments made after the fact, including advice, praise, and evaluation. But none of these are feedback, strictly speaking.

Basically, feedback is information about how we are doing in our efforts to reach a goal. I hit a tennis ball with the goal of keeping it in the court, and I see where it landsin or out. I tell a joke with the goal of making people laugh, and I observe the audiences reactionthey laugh loudly or barely snicker. I teach a lesson with the goal of engaging students, and I see that some students have their eyes riveted on me while others are nodding off.

Here are some other examples of feedback:

A friend tells me, You know, when you put it that way and speak in that softer tone of voice, it makes me feel better.

A reader comments on my short story, The first few paragraphs kept my full attention. The scene painted was vivid and interesting. But then the dialogue became hard to follow; as a reader, I was confused about who was talking, and the sequence of actions was puzzling, so I became less engaged.

A baseball coach tells me, Each time you swung and missed, you raised your head as you swung so you didnt really have your eye on the ball. On the one you hit hard, you kept your head down and saw the ball.

Note the difference between these three examples and the first three I citedthe tennis stroke, the joke, and the student responses to teaching. In the first group, I only had to take note of the tangible effect of my actions, keeping my goals in mind. No one volunteered feedback, but there was still plenty of feedback to get and use. The second group of examples all involved the deliberate, explicit giving of feedback by other people.

Whether the feedback was in the observable effects or from other people, in every case the information received was not advice, nor was the performance evaluated. No one told me as a performer what to do differently or how good or bad my results were. (You might think that the reader of my writing was judging my work, but look at the words used again: She simply played back the effect my writing had on her as a reader.) Nor did any of the three people tell me what to do (which is what many people erroneously think feedback isadvice). Guidance would be premature; I first need to receive feedback on what I did or didnt do that would warrant such advice.

In all six cases, information was conveyed about the effects of my actions as related to a goal. The information did not include value judgments or recommendations on how to improve. (For examples of information that is often falsely viewed as feedback, see Feedback vs. Advice above and Feedback vs. Evaluation and Grades on p. 15.)

Decades of education research support the idea that by teachinglessand providingmorefeedback, we can produce greater learning (see Bransford, Brown, & Cocking, 2000; Hattie, 2008; Marzano, Pickering, & Pollock, 2001). Compare the typical lecture-driven course, which often produces less-than-optimal learning, with the peer instruction model developed by Eric Mazur (2009) at Harvard. He hardly lectures at all to his 200 introductory physics students; instead, he gives them problems to think about individually and then discuss in small groups. This system, he writes, provides frequent and continuous feedback (to both the students and the instructor) about the level of understanding of the subject being discussed (p. 51), producing gains in both conceptual understanding of the subject and problem-solving skills. Less teaching, more feedback equals better results.

Whether feedback is just there to be grasped or is provided by another person, helpful feedback is goal-referenced; tangible and transparent; actionable; user-friendly (specific and personalized); timely; ongoing; and consistent.

Effective feedback requires that a person has a goal, takes action to achieve the goal, and receives goal-related information about his or her actions. I told a jokewhy? To make people laugh. I wrote a story to engage the reader with vivid language and believable dialogue that captures the characters feelings. I went up to bat to get a hit. If I am not clear on my goals or if I fail to pay attention to them, I cannot get helpful feedback (nor am I likely to achieve my goals).

Information becomes feedback if, and only if, I am trying to cause something and the information tells me whether I am on track or need to change course. If some joke or aspect of my writingisnt workinga revealing, nonjudgmental phraseI need to know.

Note that in everyday situations, goals are often implicit, although fairly obvious to everyone. I dont need to announce when telling the joke that my aim is to make you laugh. But in school, learners are often unclear about the specific goal of a task or lesson, so it is crucial to remind them about the goal and the criteria by which they should self-assess. For example, a teacher might say,

The point of this writing task is for you to make readers laugh. So, when rereading your draft or getting feedback from peers, ask, How funny is this? Where might it be funnier?

As you prepare a table poster to display the findings of your science project, remember that the aim is to interest people in your work as well as to describe the facts you discovered through your experiment. Self-assess your work against those two criteria using these rubrics. The science fair judges will do likewise.

Any useful feedback system involves not only a clear goal, but also tangible results related to the goal. People laugh, chuckle, or dont laugh at each joke; students are highly attentive, somewhat attentive, or inattentive to my teaching.

Even as little children, we learn from such tangible feedback. Thats how we learn to walk; to hold a spoon; and to understand that certain words magically yield food, drink, or a change of clothes from big people. The best feedback is so tangible that anyone who has a goal can learn from it.

Alas, far too much instructional feedback is opaque, as revealed in a true story a teacher told me years ago. A student came up to her at years end and said, Miss Jones, you kept writing this same word on my English papers all year, and I still dont know what it means. Whats the word? she asked. Vag-oo, he said. (The word wasvague!)

Sometimes, even when the information is tangible and transparent, the performers dont obtain iteither because they dont look for it or because they are too busy performing to focus on the effects. In sports, novice tennis players or batters often dont realize that theyre taking their eyes off the ball; they often protest, in fact, when that feedback is given. (Constantly yelling Keep your eye on the ball! rarely works.) And we have all seen how new teachers are sometimes so busy concentrating on teaching that they fail to notice that few students are listening or learning.

Thats why, in addition to feedback from coaches or other able observers, video or audio recordings can help us perceive things that we may not perceive as we perform; and by extension, such recordings help us learn to look for difficult-to-perceive but vital information. I recommend that all teachers videotape their own classes at least once a month. It was a transformative experience for me when I did it as a beginning teacher. Concepts that had been crystal clear to me when I was teaching seemed opaque and downright confusing on tapecaptured also in the many quizzical looks of my students, which I had missed in the moment.

Effective feedback is concrete, specific, and useful; it providesactionableinformation. Thus, Good job! and You did that wrong andB+are not feedback at all. We can easily imagine the learners asking themselves in response to these comments, Whatspecificallyshould I do more or less of next time, based on this information? No idea. They dont know what was good or wrong about what they did.

Actionable feedback must also be accepted by the performer. Many so-called feedback situations lead to arguments because the givers are not sufficiently descriptive; they jump to an inference from the data instead of simply presenting the data. For example, a supervisor may make the unfortunate but common mistake of stating that many students were bored in class. Thats a judgment, not an observation. It would have been far more useful and less debatable had the supervisor said something like, I counted ongoing inattentive behaviors in 12 of the 25 students once the lecture was underway. The behaviors included texting under desks, passing notes, and making eye contact with other students. However, after the small-group exercise began, I saw such behavior in only one student.

Such care in offering neutral, goal-related facts is the whole point of the clinical supervision of teaching and of good coaching more generally. Effective supervisors and coaches work hard to carefully observe and comment on what they observed, based on a clear statement of goals. Thats why I always ask when visiting a class, What would you like me to look for and perhaps count? In my experience as a teacher of teachers, I have always found such pure feedback to be accepted and welcomed. Effective coaches also know that in complex performance situations, actionable feedback about what went right is as important as feedback about what didnt work.

Even if feedback is specific and accurate in the eyes of experts or bystanders, it is not of much value if the user cannot understand it or is overwhelmed by it. Highly technical feedback will seem odd and confusing to a novice. Describing a baseball swing to a 6-year-old in terms of torque and other physics concepts will not likely yield a better hitter. Too much feedback is also counterproductive; better to help the performer concentrate on only one or two key elements of performance than to create a buzz of information coming in from all sides.

Expert coaches uniformly avoid overloading performers with too much or too technical information. They tell the performers one important thing they noticed that, if changed, will likely yield immediate and noticeable improvement (I was confused about who was talking in the dialogue you wrote in this paragraph). They dont offer advice until they make sure the performer understands the importance of what they saw.

In most cases, the sooner I get feedback, the better. I dont want to wait for hours or days to find out whether my students were attentive and whether they learned, or which part of my written story works and which part doesnt. I say in most cases to allow for situations like playing a piano piece in a recital. I dont want my teacher or the audience barking out feedback as I perform. Thats why it is more precise to say that good feedback is timely rather than immediate.

A great problem in education, however, is untimely feedback. Vital feedback on key performances often comes days, weeks, or even months after the performancethink of writing and handing in papers or getting back results on standardized tests. As educators, we should work overtime to figure out ways to ensure that students get more timely feedback and opportunities to use it while the attempt and effects are still fresh in their minds.

Before you say that this is impossible, remember that feedback does not need to come only from the teacher, or even from people at all. Technology is one powerful toolpart of the power of computer-assisted learning is unlimited, timely feedback and opportunities to use it. Peer review is another strategy for managing the load to ensure lots of timely feedback; its essential, however, to train students to do small-group peer review to high standards, without immature criticisms or unhelpful praise.

Adjusting our performance depends on not only receiving feedback but also having opportunities to use it. What makes any assessment in educationformativeis not merely that it precedes summative assessments, but that the performer has opportunities, if results are less than optimal, to reshape the performance to better achieve the goal. In summative assessment, the feedback comes too late; the performance is over.

Thus, the more feedback I can receive in real time, the better my ultimate performance will be. This is how all highly successful computer games work. If you play Angry Birds, Halo, Guitar Hero, or Tetris, you know that the key to substantial improvement is that the feedback is both timely and ongoing. When you fail, you can immediately start oversometimes even right where you left offto get another opportunity to receive and learn from the feedback. (This powerfulfeedback loopis also user-friendly. Games are built to reflect and adapt to our changing need, pace, and ability to process information.)

It is telling, too, that performers are often judged on their ability to adjust in light of feedback. The ability to quickly adapt ones performance is a mark of all great achievers and problem solvers in a wide array of fields. Or, as many little league coaches say, The problem is not making errors; you will all miss many balls in the field, and thats part of learning. The problem is when you dont learn from the errors.

To be useful, feedback must be consistent. Clearly, performers can only adjust their performance successfully if the information fed back to them is stable, accurate, and trustworthy. In education, that means teachers have to be on the same page about what high-quality work is. Teachers need to look at student work together, becoming more consistent over time and formalizing their judgments in highly descriptive rubrics supported by anchor products and performances. By extension, if we want student-to-student feedback to be more helpful, students have to be trained to be consistent the same way we train teachers, using the same exemplars and rubrics.

In light of these key characteristics of helpful feedback, how can schools most effectively use feedback as part of a system of formative assessment? The key is to gear feedback to long-term goals.

Lets look at how this works in sports. My daughter runs the mile in track. At the end of each lap in races and practice races, the coaches yell outsplit times(the times for each lap) and bits of feedback (Youre not swinging your arms! Youre on pace for 5:15), followed by advice (Pick it upyou need to take two seconds off this next lap to get in under 5:10!).

My daughter and her teammates are getting feedback (and advice) about how they are performing now compared with their final desired time. My daughters goal is to run a 5:00 mile. She has already run 5:09. Her coach is telling her that at the pace she just ran in the first lap, she is unlikely even to meet her best time so far this season, never mind her long-term goal. Then, he tells her something descriptive about her current performance (shes not swinging her arms) and gives her a brief piece of concrete advice (take two seconds off the next lap) to make achievement of the goal more likely.

The ability to improve ones result depends on the ability to adjust ones pace in light of ongoing feedback that measures performance against a concrete, long-term goal. But this isnt what most school district pacing guides and grades on formative tests tell you. They yield a grade against recent objectives taught, not useful feedback against thefinalperformance standards. Instead of informing teachers and students at an interim date whether they are on track to achieve a desired level of student performance by the end of the school year, the guide and the test grade just provide a schedule for the teacher to follow in delivering content and a grade on that content. Its as if at the end of the first lap of the mile race, My daughters coach simply yelled out,B+on that lap!

The advice for how to change this sad situation should be clear: Score student work in the fall and winter against spring standards, use more pre-and post-assessments to measure progress toward these standards, and do the item analysis to note what each student needs to work on for better future performance.

Although the universal teacher lament that theres no time for such feedback is understandable, remember that no time to give and use feedback actually means no time to cause learning. As we have seen, research shows thatlessteaching plusmorefeedback is the key to achieving greater learning. And there are numerous waysthrough technology, peers, and other teachersthat students can get the feedback they need.

So try it out. Less teaching, more feedback. Less feedback that comes only from you, and more tangible feedback designed into the performance itself. And, of course, send me some feedback on this article .

›You need more examples in your report.›You might want to use a lighter baseball bat.›You should have included some Essential Questions in your unit plan.These three statements are not feedback; theyre advice. Such advice out of the blue seems at best tangential and at worst unhelpful and annoying. Unless it is preceded by descriptive feedback, the natural response of the performer is to wonder, Why are you suggesting this?As coaches, teachers, and parents, we too often jump right to advice without first ensuring that the learner has sought, grasped, and tentatively accepted the feedback on which the advice is based. By doing so, we often unwittingly end up unnerving learners. Students become increasingly insecure about their own judgment and dependent on the advice of expertsand therefore in a panic about what to do when varied advice comes from different people or no advice is available at all.If your ratio of advice to feedback is too high, try asking the learner, Given the feedback, do you have some ideas about how to improve? This approach will build greater autonomy and confidence over the long haul. Once they are no longer rank novices, performers can often self-advise if asked to.

›Good work!›This is a weak paper.›You got aCon your presentation.›Im so pleased by your poster!These comments make a value judgment. They rate, evaluate, praise, or criticize what was done. There is little or no feedback hereno actionable information about what occurred. As performers, we only know that someone else placed a high or low value on what we did.How might we recast these comments to be useful feedback? Tip: Always add a mental colon after each statement of value. For example,• Good work: Your use of words was more precise in this paper than in the last one, and I saw the scenes clearly in my minds eye.• This is a weak paper: Almost from the first sentence, I was confused as to your initial thesis and the evidence you provide for it. In the second paragraph you propose a different thesis, and in the third paragraph you dont offer evidence, just beliefs.Youll soon find that you can drop the evaluative language; it serves no useful function.The most ubiquitous form of evaluation, grading, is so much a part of the school landscape that we easily overlook its utter uselessness as actionable feedback. Grades are here to stay, no doubtbut that doesnt mean we should rely on them as a major source of feedback.

Grant Wigginsprovides additional insights about feedback at ASCDs Inservice blog:

Bransford, J. D., Brown, A. L., & Cocking, R. R. (Eds.). (2000).How people learn: Brain, mind, experience, and school. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Hattie, J. (2008).Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. New York: Routledge.

Marzano, R., Pickering, D., & Pollock, J. (2001).Classroom instruction that works: Research-based strategies for increasing student achievement. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Mazur, E. (2009, January 2). Farewell, lecture?Science, 323, 5051.

Grant Wigginsis president of Authentic Education in Hopewell, New Jersey; He is the author ofEducative Assessment: Designing Assessments to Inform and Improve Student Performance(Jossey-Bass, 1998) and coauthor, with Jay McTighe, of many books in ASCDs Understanding by Design series.

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Leaving feedback for sellers

Leaving feedback is a great way to rate your buying experience with a seller on eBay.

Every time you buy something on eBay, you have the opportunity to leave positive, neutral or negative feedback about your transaction. You can also rate the sellers performance on things like communication andshipping costs.

Sometimes, if you leave neutral or negative feedback, your seller might dispute it. You can find out why in our guides below, as well as learning about how to view and change your feedback. Youll also find information on our rules about using feedback constructively and fairly.

Find out why a seller may dispute your feedback and how to resolve it.

Learn how to view, change, and follow up on feedback you left for a seller on eBay.

Read everything you need to know about our feedback policy.

After you make a purchase, well remind you via email to leave feedback for your seller.

You can also leave feedback through yourpurchase history- opens in new window or tab. If you havent already, youll see the option to leave feedback.

Select an overall feedback rating positive, neutral, or negative

Rate aspects of the transaction including whether the item arrived on time, the accuracy of the item description, shipping costs, and the sellers communication

Write a comment about your experience

By leaving feedback for a seller, youre telling them what you think. Equally important, youre letting other buyers know about your experience. Your feedback combines with others to build a rich base of knowledge to help to find the best sellers every time you shop.

When you look at a listing, youll find the sellers positive feedback score beneath their username, listed as a percentage. For example, if a seller has a score of 99.5%, it means that 99.5% of buyers left positive feedback about their experience with that seller.

For every transaction, buyers and sellers can choose to rate each other by leaving feedback. After each transaction, you can leave a positive, negative, or a neutral rating, plus a short comment to rate your experience with the seller.

We use these ratings to determine feedback scores. In most cases, members receive:

You should leave feedback for each sale. As for your own feedback score, keep in mind that we calculate this differently depending on whether the sales occurred in the same week. For feedback purposes, we define a week as Monday through Sunday, Pacific Time.

If the sales occurred in different weeks each rating can affect a feedback score by 1 point. A positive rating raises a feedback score by 1 point. A negative rating lowers a sellers feedback score by 1 point.

If the sales occurred in the same week we raise your feedback score by a total of 1 point, regardless of the number of positive ratings you received from the seller within the week.

Negative feedback becomes a permanent part of a sellers record, and can harm their reputation and their business. If possible, you should try to resolve any issues you have with a seller before you leave negative feedback.

If you decide to leave negative feedback, make sure its fair, factual, and relates specifically to your transaction with the seller. Remember, feedback is about your experience with the seller its not a review of the product you bought.

Sellers often respond to negative feedback and may get in touch with you to try to resolve the issue.

In some situations, we may remove or adjust feedback for transaction defects. Learn more about ourDefect removal policy.

Additionally, if we suspend a member, well remove any neutral or negative feedback they left for others. Well also remove feedback from a buyer if they fail to pay for an item.

Only registered eBay members can leave feedback.

Feedback is an opportunity to leave an honest comment about your experience with a seller, or thank a customer for their purchase.

If youre having an issue with an eBay seller, try contacting them directly to resolve your problem. If you cant work things out, were always here to step in and help.

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