Our Moon

According to NASA, there have been six lunar landings, all under the Apollo program.The first moon landing was by Apollo 11 on July 16, 1969. The last was Apollo 17, which landed on the moon on December 7, 1972.

How Can I Tell What Phase the Moon Is In?

The way to identify which of the phases the moon is in is based on which section of the moons face is lit by the sun. The moon has eight phases, which happen in the same cycle over the course of a 29-day period.

How Close Does the Moon Get to the Earth?

The moon travels in an elliptical orbit, and at perigee, the closest it gets to Earth, it stands about 225,623 miles, or 363,104 kilometers away.

The most popular theory regarding lunar formation is that a Mars-sized planetoid slammed into the Earth and flung molten debris into orbit around 40 million years after the solar system was created, according to scientists at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). This is called the giant impact theory.

A red moon occurs when the Earth eclipses the moon from sunlight. The moon looks red due to dispersed light from Earths sunrises and sunsets that is refracted back onto the moons surface.

According to NASA, one moon day is equal to 27 Earth days, which is the time the moon takes to complete its spin. The moon is tidally locked, so it always shows the same face to the Earth.

One of the main reasons the United States sponsored a mission to the moon was because of the space race with Russia. Russia was the first country to put an artificial satellite in space, which caused a lot of embarrassment for the U.S.

What Objects Did Astronauts Leave on the Moon?

Thanks to six moon landings, hundreds of objects are still scattered across the surface of the moon: golf balls, boots, cameras, javelins, sculptures, photographs, and a golden olive branch. Because the moon doesnt have an atmosphere, most of these objects will remain preserved until something impacts that area of the moon.

Do Full Moons Really Make Us Crazy?

Humans have long believed that there is a connection between a full moon and erratic behavior, but there is no scientific proof that this is the case. Even though no real evidence exists of the moons crazy-making powers, many continue to believe that the two things are connected. This is known as illusory correlation, in which people imagine that they see a logical connection where there isnt one.

The surface of the moon is generally a light gray color, although there are parts of the moon that are made up of dark gray rocks. The moon has a different appearance from the surface, from space and from the Earth.

The phases of the moon are: new moon, waxing crescent, first quarter, waxing gibbous, full, waning gibbous, third quarter and waning crescent. After the waning-crescent phase the moon returns to the new-moon phase and the cycle starts again. The complete cycle takes a little over 29 days.

There is evidence that the moon is seismically active, which means it can experience the moon version of an earthquake. During the 1969 and 1972 moon landings, astronauts placed seismometers on the moon in order to allow scientists to learn more about earths biggest natural satellite.

The lunar crust is made of 43 percent oxygen, 20 percent silicon, 19 percent magnesium, 10 percent iron, 3 percent calcium and 3 percent aluminum. The moons core is thought to consist of iron, sulfur and nickel, with the largest middle layer, or mantle, composed of olivine, clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene.

How Did a Pen Save Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin?

When Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin first attempted to pilot their lunar lander back off the moon, a critical switch broke, forcing the astronauts to improvise a solution with a ballpoint pen. Aldrin took responsibility for breaking the switch, but he was also the one who found the solution in a ballpoint pen.

How Much Would You Weigh on the Moon?

According to the Argonne National Laboratory, a human being weighs approximately one-sixth as much on the moon as he does on Earth. If an individual weighs 180 pounds on Earth, that weight is converted to 30 pounds on the moon.

How Long Does It Take the Moon to Rotate on Its Axis?

One lunar day, the length of time it takes the moon to complete a full rotation on its axis, is equivalent to 28 days on Earth. This is also the amount of time it takes for the moon to complete its orbit around the Earth.

Whether Neil Armstrongs famous saying one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind is a misquote or not seems to be a matter of some debate. NASA authorities at the time claimed he said one small step for a man and Armstrong himself has occupied both sides of the debate at different times.

How Many Phases Does the Moon Have?

The moon has a total of eight individual phases. Four of these phases are considered to be the moons main phases. The remaining four phases are considered to be the moons transitional phases.

Whose Ashes Were Brought to the Moon?

In 1999, a space probe called the Lunar Prospector carried some of the ashes of American scientist Eugene Shoemaker to the moon. As of 2015, Shoemaker is the only human to be buried on the moon, though not all of Shoemakers remains were sent with the Prospector.

While the name blue moon conjures up a vivid, colorful image, the term actually refers to those times when there are two full moons in a single month; that second full moon is referred to as the blue moon, though its color is likely to be the same as it ever is. It is possible for the moon to have a bluish appearance, but this is usually due to atmospheric changes on earth, such as smoke or ash in the upper atmosphere as the result of fires or volcanic activity.

What Happens During a Lunar Eclipse?

A lunar eclipse happens when the Earth passes between the moon and the sun. Lunar eclipses cast a shadow on the moon due to the Earths location. From the perspective of the moon, the Earth completely blocks the sun.

How Many Apollo Missions Landed on the Moon?

Six Apollo missions, specifically Apollo 11, 12, 14, 15, 16 and 17, landed on the moon between 1969 and 1972. Apollo 13 was also supposed to land on the moon but failed to do so due to a spacecraft malfunction.

When Is The Next Full Moon? October 2017 Harvest Moon

Full moon photograph taken on Oct. 22, 2010, from Madison, Alabama

The full Harvest Moon will rise in the sky on Thursday. The moon will be completely full at2:41 p.m. EDT Thursday, but depending on where you are it might be difficult to see. In certain places the moon will be below the horizon line for part of the day not to mention that it will be sunny out, making it even more difficult to see. The moon will still look full hours later during Thursday evening, and it will even look mostly full on Wednesday night as well, before reaching peak fullness.

Usually the Harvest Moon happens during September, but this year, its happening in October. The Harvest Moon is used to refer to the full moon that rises closest to the autumn equinox in the Northern Hemisphere. Its called the Harvest Moon because it tends to rise soon after sunset, which gave farmers more time to harvest their crops,according to the Old Farmers Almanac. It also happens around the time of year when many crops are ready for harvesting.

The Harvest Moon is just the name for the full moon, while its not necessarily any larger or brighter than usual, it is visible for longer periods of time. After the Harvest Moon rises on Thursday afternoon, it will stay up for nearly the entire night setting around the same time as sunrise. Each day the moon rises later and later, usually rising about 50 minutes later each day.

But around the Harvest Moon, it only rises about 30 to 35 minutes later each day,according to . The higher north of latitude youre at, the less time between the moonrises.

During this time the moon will be rising closer to when the sun is setting, so youll be able to see the moon during twilight. When you see the moon rising close to the horizon line early in the evening, youll see the moon through more of the Earths atmosphere, which might make it appear slightly more yellow or orange. The moon will appear fairly full during these nights before and after the full moon too.It will seem like there areactually a few nights to enjoy thefull moon. As of Monday, prior to the full moon, the moon was nearly 90 percent full already,according to Time and Date.

The autumnalequinox happened on Sept. 22. The September full moon had occurred afew weeks prior to that eventmeaning that it was not the full moon happening closest to the equinox. This only happens about every three years or so.

The full moon in October is also sometimes called the Hunters Moon marking the time to go hunting before the winter arrives. TheTravel Moon or the Dying Grass Moonare other names that have been used by various Native American tribes in reference to Octobers full moon. These are usually used when the Harvest Moon happens in September.

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Blue moon

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article is about an additional full moon that appears in a subdivision of a year. For other uses, seeBlue Moon (disambiguation).

Blue moon of theDecember 2009 lunar eclipse

Ablue moonis an additionalfull moonthat appears in a subdivision of a year: either the third of four full moons in a season, or a second full moon in a month of the common calendar.

The phrase has nothing to do with the actual color of the moon, although a literal blue moon (the moon appearing with a tinge of blue) may occur in certain atmospheric conditions: e.g., if volcanic eruptions or fires leave particles in the atmosphere of just the right size to preferentially scatter red light.[1]

The term has traditionally referred to an extra full moon, where a year which normally has 12 full moons has 13 instead. The blue moon reference is applied to the third full moon in aseasonwith four full moons,[2]thus correcting the timing of the last month of a season that would have otherwise been expected too early. This happens every two to three years (seven times in theMetonic cycleof 19 years).[3]The March 1946 issue ofSky & Telescopemisinterpreted the traditional definition, which led to the modern colloquial misunderstanding that a blue moon is a secondfull moonin a singlesolar calendarmonth with no seasonal link.

Owing to the rarity of a blue moon, the term blue moon isused colloquially to mean a rare event, as in the phrase once in a blue moon.[4][5]

Onelunation(an average lunar cycle) is 29.53days. There are about 365.24 days in atropical year. Therefore, about 12.37 lunations (365.24 days divided by 29.53 days) occur in a tropical year. In the widely usedGregorian calendar, there are 12months(the wordmonthis derived frommoon[6]) in a year, and normally there is one full moon each month. Each calendar year contains roughly 11 days more than the number of days in 12 lunar cycles. The extra days accumulate, so every two or three years (seven times in the 19-yearMetonic cycle), there is an extra full moon. The extra full moon necessarily falls in one of the four seasons, giving that season four full moons instead of the usual three, and, hence, a blue moon.

Incalculatingthe dates forLentandEaster, Catholicclergyidentified a Lenten moon. Historically, when the moons arrived too early, they called the early moon a betrayer (

, so the Lenten moon came at its expected time.

according to its time of year. The occasional 13th full moon that came too early for its season was called a blue moon, so the rest of the moons that year retained their customary seasonal names.

called the third full moon in a season that had four the blue moon.

The frequency of a blue moon can be calculated as follows. It is the period of time it would take for an extrasynodic orbitof the moon to occur in a year. Given that a year is approximately 365.2425 days and a synodic orbit is 29.5309 days,

then there are about 12.368 synodic months in a year. For this to add up to another full month would take 1/0.368 years. Thus it would take about 2.716 years, or 2 years, 8 months and 18 days for another blue moon to occur.

Using the common Sky & Telescope misunderstanding, when one calendar month has two full moons; the second one is called a blue moon. On rare occasions in a calendar year (as happened in 2010 in time zones east of UTC+07), both January and March each have two full moons, so that the second one in each month is called a blue moon; in this case, the month of February, with only 28 or 29 days, has no full moon. Under this misinterpretation a blue moon can be more frequent.

Blue moon of August 31, 2012, viewed fromSlobozia, Romania.

The suggestion has been made that the term blue moon for intercalary month arose byfolk etymology, the blue replacing the no-longer-understoodbelewe, to betray. The original meaning would then have been betrayer moon, referring to a full moon that would normally (in years without an intercalary month) be the full moon of spring, while in an intercalary year, it was traitorous in the sense that people would have had to continue fasting for another month in accordance with the season ofLent.[8][9]

The earliest recorded English usage of the termblue moonis found in an anti-clerical pamphlet (attacking the Roman clergy, and cardinalThomas Wolseyin particular) by twoconvertedGreenwich friars, William Roy and Jerome Barlow, published in 1528 under the titleRede me and be nott wrothe, for I say no thynge but trothe. The relevant passage reads:[10]

O churche men are wyly foxes […] Yf they say the mone is blewe / We must beleve that it is true / Admittynge their interpretacion.[11]

It is not clear from the context that this refers tointercalation; the context of the passage is a dialogue between two priests servants, spoken by the character Jeffrey (a brefe dialoge betwene two prestes servauntis, named Watkyn and Ieffraye). The intention may simply be that Jeffrey makes an absurd statement, the moon is blue, to make the point that priests require laymen to believe in statements even if they are patently false. But in the above interpretation of betrayer moon, Jeffrey may also be saying that it is up to the priests to say when Lent will be delayed, by announcing blue moons which laymen have no means to verify.

In the 19th and early 20th centuries, theMaine Farmers Almanaclisted blue moon dates for farmers. These correspond to the third full moon in a quarter of the year when there were four full moons (normally a quarter year has three full moons).Full moon nameswere given to each lunation in a season. The seasons used were those of themean tropical year, equal in length, as opposed to the astronomical seasons which vary in length because the earths speed in its orbit round the sun is not uniform.

To compare, in 1983 the equal seasons began at 1.48 AM on 23 March, 9.15 AM on 22 June, 4.42 PM on 21 September and 12.10 AM on 22 December, while the astronomical seasons began at 4.39 AM on 21 March, 11.09 PM on 21 June, 2.42 PM on 23 September and 10.30 AM on 22 December (all times GMT). When a season has four full moons the third is called the blue moon so that the last can continue to be called with the proper name for that season.[2]

The March 1946Sky and Telescopearticle Once in a Blue Moon by James Hugh Pruett misinterpreted the 1937Maine Farmers Almanac. Seven times in 19 years there were and still are 13 full moons in a year. This gives 11 months with one full moon each and one with two. This second in a month, so I interpret it, was called Blue Moon. Widespread adoption of the definition of a blue moon as the second full moon in a month followed its use on the popular radio programStarDateon January 31, 1980[2]and in a question in theTrivial Pursuitgame in 1986.[5]

The most literal meaning ofblue moonis when the moon (not necessarily a full moon) appears to a casual observer to be unusually bluish, which is a rare event. The effect can be caused by smoke or dust particles in the atmosphere, as has happened after forest fires in Sweden and Canada in 1950 and 1951,[12]and after theeruption of Krakatoa in 1883, which caused the moon to appear blue for nearly two years. Other less potent volcanoes have also turned the moon blue. People saw blue moons in 1983 after the eruption of theEl Chichnvolcano in Mexico, and there are reports of blue moons caused byMount St. Helensin 1980 andMount Pinatuboin 1991.[13]In the Antarctic diary ofRobert Falcon Scottfor July 11, 1911 his entry says, … the air thick with snow, and the moon a vague blue.[14]On that date the moon phase would have looked full.

On September 23, 1950, severalmuskegfires that had been smoldering for several years in Alberta, Canada, suddenly blew up into majorand very smokyfires. Winds carried the smoke eastward and southward with unusual speed, and the conditions of the fire produced large quantities of oily droplets of just the right size (about 1micrometrein diameter) to scatter red and yellow light. Wherever the smoke cleared enough so that the sun was visible, it was lavender or blue. Ontario, Canada, and much of the east coast of the United States were affected by the following day, and two days later, observers in Britain reported an indigo sun in smoke-dimmed skies, followed by an equally blue moon that evening.[13]

The key to a blue moon is having lots of particles slightly wider than the wavelength of red light (0.7 micrometer)and no other sizes present. It is rare, but volcanoes sometimes produce such clouds, as do forest fires. Ash and dust clouds thrown into the atmosphere by fires and storms usually contain a mixture of particles with a wide range of sizes, with most smaller than 1 micrometer, and they tend to scatter blue light. This kind of cloud makes the moon turn red; thus red moons are far more common than blue moons.[15]

The following blue moons occur between 2009 and 2021. These dates useUTCas the timezone; exact dates vary with different timezones.

Using theMaine Farmers Almanacdefinition of blue moon (meaning the third full moon in a season of four full moons, but referenced to astronomical rather than equal seasons), blue moons have occurred or will occur on:

Unlike the astronomical seasonal definition, these dates are dependent on the Gregorian calendar and time zones.

Two full moons in one month (the second of which is a blue moon):[16]

2009: December 2 and 31 (partial lunar eclipsevisible in some parts of the world), only in time zones west ofUTC+05.

2010: January 1 (partial lunar eclipse) and 30, only in time zones east ofUTC+04:30.

2010: March 1 and 30, only in time zones east ofUTC+07.

2012: August 2 and 31, only in time zones west ofUTC+10.

2012: September 1 and 30, only in time zones east ofUTC+10:30.

2018: January 2 and 31, only in time zones west of UTC+11.

2018: March 2 and 31, only in time zones west of UTC+12.

2020: October 1 and 31, only in time zones west of UTC+10.

The next timeNew Years Evefalls on a Blue Moon (as occurred on December 31, 2009 in time zones west of UTC+05) is after one Metonic cycle, in 2028 in time zones west of UTC+08. At that time there will be atotal lunar eclipse.

Blue moons have been referenced in popular culture.

Blue Moonis a popular music standard, written by Richard Rodgers and Lorenz Hart in 1934,[17]and one of the best knownfootball chants,[18]used since the 90s byManchester CityandCrewe Alexandra.[19]Once in a Very Blue Moonis a song written byPatrick Alger, recorded byNanci Griffith, and released on her 1984 LP of the same name.New Blue Moon, released in 1990, was a song written and recorded by theTraveling Wilburys. There are more modern songs, likeBecks 2014Blue Moon.[17][20]South Koreanrock bandCN Bluenamed their 2013-2014 concert tourBlue Moon World Tour..[21]Blue Moon of Kentuckyis a bluegrass standard, written in 1946 byBill Monroe.

In the 1998 paranormal romance fiction novel byLaurell K. Hamiltonof the same name,Blue Moonrefers to two full moons occurring within the same month.[22]In the 2009 young adult fiction novel byAlyson Noëlof the same name,Blue Moonrefers to two full moons occurring within the same month and the same astrological sign.[23]Note that if two full moons fall within the same astrological sign they will fall in different calendar months, andvice versa. In the novels ofSimon R. Greenthe blue moon plays a significant magical role, and also figures in titles of three of his novels:Blue Moon Rising,Beyond the Blue Moon, andOnce in a Blue Moon, all of the Hawk & Fisher fantasy series.

The Moon Is Blue, a 1953 movie starring William Holden, was nominated for three Oscars.[24]Blue Moon Investigations is the name of the detective agency in the TV seriesMoonlightingstarringCybill ShepherdandBruce Willis.[25]A Blue Moon appears as a significant element in the 2011 filmThe Smurfs,[26]and the Wikipedia page on Blue Moon is viewed in the movie.The SmurfsTV show also featured the blue moon in an episode.[27]The theme song forThe SopranosWoke Up This MorningbyAlabama 3, references a blue moon in your eyes in its lyrics. Once in a Blue Moon is also the name of an episode of TV showCharmed, which involves the three witches being affected by the blue moon magically, and turning into monsters.[28]

Blue moon is the name of a country in NintendosAdvance Wars series.

Gibbs, Philip (May 1997).Why is the sky blue?.

… may cause the moon to have a blue tinge since the red light has been scattered out.

Sinnott, Roger W.; Olson, Donald W.; Fienberg, Richard Tresch (May 1999).Whats a Blue Moon?.

The trendy definition of blue Moon as the second full Moon in a month is a mistake.

Plait, Phil.Todays Full Moon is the 13th and Last of 2012.

Smith, Bridie (December 28, 2009).Once in a Blue Moon …

Hiscock, Philip (August 30, 2012).Folklore of the Blue Moon

Espanek, Fred.Eclipses and the moons orbit.

. Almanac Publishing Co. August 24, 2009

Frequently asked questions about the date of Easter. Oikoumene.org (2007-01-31). Retrieved on Aug ust 14, 2012.

April 1, 2004, at theWayback Machine.. Astro.nmsu.edu. Retrieved on August 14, 2012

printed by John Schott at Strasburg in 1528. See also

Koelbing, Arthur (190721).Barclay and Skelton: German Influence on English Literature. In A.W. Ward; et al.

The Cambridge History of English and American Literature

. New York: G.P. Putnams Sons. vol.III, ch.4, 14.ISBN1-58734-073-9.

Minnaert, M: De natuurkunde van t vrije veld 5th edition Thieme 1974, part I Licht en kleur in het landschap par.187;ISBN90-03-90844-3(out of print); also seeISBN0-387-97935-2

Blue Moon. science.nasa.gov (July 7, 2004).

Bowling, S. A. (1988-02-22).Blue moons and lavender suns. Alaska Science Forum, Article 861

Joffe, Justin (July 31, 2015).The Blue Moons Rich History in American MusicThe New York Observer

Keidel, Phil (September 18, 2013).20 Chants Every True Manchester City Fan Should KnowBleacher Report

Brobyn, Emily (March 9, 2011).Blue Moon Significance

Grow, Kory (January 20, 2014).Beck Admits Hes Tired of Being Alone in New Song Blue Moon

Bae, Soo-min (4 March BLUE unveils 2013 BLUE MOON World Tour.

. New York City: Ace Books. pp.Ch. 46.ISBN0-441-00574-8.

. New York: St. Martins Griffin. pp.Ch. 37.ISBN0-312-53276-8.

Moore, Roger (July 29, 2011).Smurfs in 3-D? Not as scary as you might thinkChicago Tribune

The Smurfs Season 3 Episode 1 Once In A Blue MoonTV.com

Charmed Season 7 Episode 6: Once in a Blue MoonTV.com

Information about the August 2012 Blue Moon

Folklore of the Blue Moonby Philip Hiscock

Whats a Blue Moon?by Donald W. Olson, Richard T. Fienberg, and Roger W. Sinnott,

. Article explaining that originally a blue moon meant the 3rd full moon in a season of 4 full moons, and how the 2nd in a month error began.

Blue moon calculatorby David Harper

Its a big night for a blue moonat nbcnews.com

What does blue moon really mean?blog entry on lunar calendars and computing

Blue moon definition based on a mistakeby Tony Rice

This page was last edited on 1 July 2018, at 18:27

Text is available under the; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to theTerms of UseandPrivacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of theWikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.

Full Moon February 2018 When Is The Next Full Moon?

An image of one full side of the moon.

January brought a meteor shower,two full moons and a lunar eclipsefor night-sky gazers but February hasnt been anywhere near as full of lunar or stellar events. Thats not about to change, either.

This year, the month of February will have no full moons at all, nor will it have any meteor showers. The next full moon wont actually happen untilMarch 1and the next meteor shower that will actually be visible wont happen until April.

Friday, Feb. 16, actually marks the lunar New Year, which is what the Chinese New Year is scheduled around. The holiday is set based on the lunar calendar. Thenew moon occurred Thursday afternoonwhen the moon was zero percent illuminated. After the new moon, more and more of the moon moves into an illuminated position until it reaches full.

Due to the full moon that occurred on Jan. 31 and the fact that February is such a short month, the full moon will just miss appearing in February on either end of the month.

Januarys full moons were not onlyfull, but they were supermoons meaning they appeared larger than usual and also a bit brighter than usual. The next full moon though will be back to its regular size and brightness. There was also a lunar eclipse visible during the full moon at the end of January which is what gave the moon a red hue and the namesuper blue blood moon.

So sky viewers will have to wait until next month to see another full moon, assuming the sky is clear that night.

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Full moon calendar 2019

Here you see the full moon calendar with the full moon dates of 2019 and exact times and dates in an overview.

For all who would like to look back or look ahead, we have compiled all full moon dates of previous and future years.