Model School Wellness Policies

Print these model policies (PDFWord)

The National Alliance for Nutrition and Activity encourages schools, school districts, and others to use, distribute, and adapt the Model School Wellness Policies.

Nutritional Quality of Foods and Beverages Sold and Served on Campus

Nutrition and Physical Activity Promotion and Food Marketing

Physical Activity Opportunities and Physical Education

__________________ School Districts Wellness Policies on Physical Activity and Nutrition

Whereas, children need access to healthful foods and opportunities to be physically active in order to grow, learn, and thrive;

Whereas, good health fosters student attendance and education;

Whereas, obesity rates have doubled in children and tripled in adolescents over the last two decades, and physical inactivity and excessive calorie intake are the predominant causes of obesity;

Whereas, heart disease, cancer, stroke, and diabetes are responsible for two-thirds of deaths in the United States, and major risk factors for those diseases, including unhealthy eating habits, physical inactivity, and obesity, often are established in childhood;

Whereas, 33% of high school students do not participate in sufficient vigorous physical activity and 72% of high school students do not attend daily physical education classes;

Whereas, only 2% of children (2 to 19 years) eat a healthy diet consistent with the five main recommendations from the Food Guide Pyramid;

Whereas, nationally, the items most commonly sold from school vending machines, school stores, and snack bars include low-nutrition foods and beverages, such as soda, sports drinks, imitation fruit juices, chips, candy, cookies, and snack cakes;

Whereas, school districts around the country are facing significant fiscal and scheduling constraints; and

Whereas, community participation is essential to the development and implementation of successful school wellness policies;

Thus, the _____________________ School District is committed to providing school environments that promote and protect childrens health, well-being, and ability to learn by supporting healthy eating and physical activity. Therefore, it is the policy of the ________________ School District that:

The school district will engage students, parents, teachers, food service professionals, health professionals, and other interested community members in developing, implementing, monitoring, and reviewing district-wide nutrition and physical activity policies.

All students in grades K-12 will have opportunities, support, and encouragement to be physically active on a regular basis.

Foods and beverages sold or served at school will meet the nutrition recommendations of the

U.S. Dietary Guidelines for Americans

Qualified child nutrition professionals will provide students with access to a variety of affordable, nutritious, and appealing foods that meet the health and nutrition needs of students; will accommodate the religious, ethnic, and cultural diversity of the student body in meal planning; and will provide clean, safe, and pleasant settings and adequate time for students to eat.

To the maximum extent practicable, all schools in our district will participate in available federal school meal programs (including the School Breakfast Program, National School Lunch Program [including after-school snacks], Summer Food Service Program, Fruit and Vegetable Snack Program, and Child and Adult Care Food Program [including suppers]).

Schools will provide nutrition education and physical education to foster lifelong habits of healthy eating and physical activity, and will establish linkages between health education and school meal programs, and with related community services.

The school district and/or individual schools within the district will create, strengthen, or work within existing school health councils to develop, implement, monitor, review, and, as necessary, revise school nutrition and physical activity policies. The councils also will serve as resources to school sites for implementing those policies. (A school health council consists of a group of individuals representing the school and community, and should include parents, students, representatives of the school food authority, members of the school board, school administrators, teachers, health professionals, and members of the public.)

Meals served through the National School Lunch and Breakfast Programs will:

be appealing and attractive to children;

be served in clean and pleasant settings;

meet, at a minimum, nutrition requirements established by local, state, and federal statutes and regulations;

offer a variety of fruits and vegetables;

serve only low-fat (1%) and fat-free milk

and nutritionally-equivalent non-dairy alternatives (to be defined by USDA); and

ensure that half of the served grains are whole grain.

Schools should engage students and parents, through taste-tests of new entrees and surveys, in selecting foods sold through the school meal programs in order to identify new, healthful, and appealing food choices. In addition, schools should share information about the nutritional content of meals with parents and students. Such information could be made available on menus, a website, on cafeteria menu boards, placards, or other point-of-purchase materials.

Breakfast.To ensure that all children have breakfast, either at home or at school, in order to meet their nutritional needs and enhance their ability to learn:

Schools will, to the extent possible, operate the School Breakfast Program.

Schools will, to the extent possible, arrange bus schedules and utilize methods to serve school breakfasts that encourage participation, including serving breakfast in the classroom, grab-and-go breakfast, or breakfast during morning break or recess.

Schools that serve breakfast to students will notify parents and students of the availability of the School Breakfast Program.

Schools will encourage parents to provide a healthy breakfast for their children through newsletter articles, take-home materials, or other means.

Free and Reduced-priced Meals.Schools will make every effort to eliminate any social stigma attached to, and prevent the overt identification of, students who are eligible for free and reduced-price school meals5. Toward this end, schools may utilize electronic identification and payment systems; provide meals at no charge to all children, regardless of income; promote the availability of school meals to all students; and/or use nontraditional methods for serving school meals, such as grab-and-go or classroom breakfast.

Summer Food Service Program.Schools in which more than 50% of students are eligible for free or reduced-price school meals will sponsor the Summer Food Service Program for at least six weeks between the last day of the academic school year and the first day of the following school year, and preferably throughout the entire summer vacation.

will provide students with at least 10 minutes to eat after sitting down for breakfast and 20 minutes after sitting down for lunch;

should schedule meal periods at appropriate times,

., lunch should be scheduled between 11 a.m. and 1 p.m.;

should not schedule tutoring, club, or organizational meetings or activities during mealtimes, unless students may eat during such activities;

will schedule lunch periods to follow recess periods (in elementary schools);

will provide students access to hand washing or hand sanitizing before they eat meals or snacks; and

should take reasonable steps to accommodate the tooth-brushing regimens of students with special oral health needs (

., orthodontia or high tooth decay risk).

Qualifications of School Food Service Staff.Qualified nutrition professionals will administer the school meal programs. As part of the school districts responsibility to operate a food service program, we will provide continuing professional development for all nutrition professionals in schools. Staff development programs should include appropriate certification and/or training programs for child nutrition directors, school nutrition managers, and cafeteria workers, according to their levels of responsibility.6

Sharing of Foods and Beverages.Schools should discourage students from sharing their foods or beverages with one another during meal or snack times, given concerns about allergies and other restrictions on some childrens diets.

Foods and Beverages Sold Individually (

., foods sold outside of reimbursable school meals, such as through vending machines, cafeteria a la carte [snack] lines, fundraisers, school stores, etc.)

Elementary Schools.The school food service program will approve and provide all food and beverage sales to students in elementary schools. Given young childrens limited nutrition skills, food in elementary schools should be sold as balanced meals. If available, foods and beverages sold individually should be limited to low-fat and non-fat milk, fruits, and non-fried vegetables.

Middle/Junior High and High Schools.In middle/junior high and high schools, all foods and beverages sold individually outside the reimbursable school meal programs (including those sold through a la carte [snack] lines, vending machines, student stores, or fundraising activities) during the school day, or through programs for students after the school day, will meet the following nutrition and portion size standards:

without added caloric sweeteners; fruit and vegetable juices and fruit-based drinks that contain at least 50% fruit juice and that do not contain additional caloric sweeteners; unflavored or flavored low-fat or fat-free fluid milk and nutritionally-equivalent nondairy beverages (to be defined by USDA);

: soft drinks containing caloric sweeteners; sports drinks; iced teas; fruit-based drinks that contain less than 50% real fruit juice or that contain additional caloric sweeteners; beverages containing caffeine, excluding low-fat or fat-free chocolate milk (which contain trivial amounts of caffeine).

will have no more than 35% of its calories from fat (excluding nuts, seeds, peanut butter, and other nut butters) and 10% of its calories from saturated and trans fat combined;

will contain no more than 230 mg of sodium per serving for chips, cereals, crackers, French fries, baked goods, and other snack items; will contain no more than 480 mg of sodium per serving for pastas, meats, and soups; and will contain no more than 600 mg of sodium for pizza, sandwiches, and main dishes.

A choice of at least two fruits and/or non-fried vegetables will be offered for sale at any location on the school site where foods are sold. Such items could include, but are not limited to, fresh fruits and vegetables; 100% fruit or vegetable juice; fruit-based drinks that are at least 50% fruit juice and that do not contain additional caloric sweeteners; cooked, dried, or canned fruits (canned in fruit juice or light syrup); and cooked, dried, or canned vegetables (that meet the above fat and sodium guidelines).

Limit portion sizes of foods and beverages sold individually to those listed below:

One and one-quarter ounces for chips, crackers, popcorn, cereal, trail mix, nuts, seeds, dried fruit, or jerky;

Two ounces for cereal bars, granola bars, pastries, muffins, doughnuts, bagels, and other bakery items;

Four fluid ounces for frozen desserts, including, but not limited to, low-fat or fat-free ice cream;

Eight ounces for non-frozen yogurt;

Twelve fluid ounces for beverages, excluding water; and

The portion size of a la carte entrees and side dishes, including potatoes, will not be greater than the size of comparable portions offered as part of school meals. Fruits and non-fried vegetables are exempt from portion-size limits.

Fundraising Activities.To support childrens health and school nutrition-education efforts, school fundraising activities will not involve food or will use only foods that meet the above nutrition and portion size standards for foods and beverages sold individually. Schools will encourage fundraising activities that promote physical activity. The school district will make available a list of ideas for acceptable fundraising activities.View Additional Resources

Snacks.Snacks served during the school day or in after-school care or enrichment programs will make a positive contribution to childrens diets and health, with an emphasis on serving fruits and vegetables as the primary snacks and water as the primary beverage. Schools will assess if and when to offer snacks based on timing of school meals, childrens nutritional needs, childrens ages, and other considerations. The district will disseminate a list of healthful snack items to teachers, after-school program personnel, and parents.

If eligible, schools that provide snacks through after-school programs will pursue receiving reimbursements through the National School Lunch Program.

Rewards.Schools will not use foods or beverages, especially those that do not meet the nutrition standards for foods and beverages sold individually (above), as rewards for academic performance or good behavior,10and will not withhold food or beverages (including food served through school meals) as a punishment.View Additional Resources

Celebrations.Schools should limit celebrations that involve food during the school day to no more than one party per class per month. Each party should include no more than one food or beverage that does not meet nutrition standards for foods and beverages sold individually (above). The district will disseminate a list of healthy party ideas to parents and teachers.View Additional Resources

School-sponsored Events (such as, but not limited to, athletic events, dances, or performances).Foods and beverages offered or sold at school-sponsored events outside the school day will meet the nutrition standards for meals or for foods and beverages sold individually (above).

Nutrition Education and Promotion._______________ School District aims to teach, encourage, and support healthy eating by students. Schools should provide nutrition education and engage in nutrition promotion that:

is offered at each grade level as part of a sequential, comprehensive, standards-based program designed to provide students with the knowledge and skills necessary to promote and protect their health;

is part of not only health education classes, but also classroom instruction in subjects such as math, science, language arts, social sciences, and elective subjects;

includes enjoyable, developmentally-appropriate, culturally-relevant, participatory activities, such as contests, promotions, taste testing, farm visits, and school gardens;

promotes fruits, vegetables, whole grain products, low-fat and fat-free dairy products, healthy food preparation methods, and health-enhancing nutrition practices;

emphasizes caloric balance between food intake and energy expenditure (physical activity/exercise);

links with school meal programs, other school foods, and nutrition-related community services;

teaches media literacy with an emphasis on food marketing; and

includes training for teachers and other staff.

Integrating Physical Activity into the Classroom Setting.For students to receive the nationally-recommended amount of daily physical activity (i.e., at least 60 minutes per day) and for students to fully embrace regular physical activity as a personal behavior, students need opportunities for physical activity beyond physical education class. Toward that end:

classroom health education will complement physical education by reinforcing the knowledge and self-management skills needed to maintain a physically-active lifestyle and to reduce time spent on sedentary activities, such as watching television;

opportunities for physical activity will be incorporated into other subject lessons; and

classroom teachers will provide short physical activity breaks between lessons or classes, as appropriate.

Communications with Parents.The district/school will support parents efforts to provide a healthy diet and daily physical activity for their children. The district/school will offer healthy eating seminars for parents, send home nutrition information, post nutrition tips on school websites, and provide nutrient analyses of school menus. Schools should encourage parents to pack healthy lunches and snacks and to refrain from including beverages and foods that do not meet the above nutrition standards for individual foods and beverages. The district/school will provide parents a list of foods that meet the districts snack standards and ideas for healthy celebrations/parties, rewards, and fundraising activities. In addition, the district/school will provide opportunities for parents to share their healthy food practices with others in the school community.

The district/school will provide information about physical education and other school-based physical activity opportunities before, during, and after the school day; and support parents efforts to provide their children with opportunities to be physically active outside of school. Such supports will include sharing information about physical activity and physical education through a website, newsletter, or other take-home materials, special events, or physical education homework.

Food Marketing in Schools.School-based marketing will be consistent with nutrition education and health promotion. As such, schools will limit food and beverage marketing to the promotion of foods and beverages that meet the nutrition standards for meals or for foods and beverages sold individually (above).11School-based marketing of brands promoting predominantly low-nutrition foods and beverages12is prohibited. The promotion of healthy foods, including fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and low-fat dairy products is encouraged.

Examples of marketing techniques include the following: logos and brand names on/in vending machines, books or curricula, textbook covers, school supplies, scoreboards, school structures, and sports equipment; educational incentive programs that provide food as a reward; programs that provide schools with supplies when families buy low-nutrition food products; in-school television, such as Channel One; free samples or coupons; and food sales through fundraising activities. Marketing activities that promote healthful behaviors (and are therefore allowable) include: vending machine covers promoting water; pricing structures that promote healthy options in a la carte lines or vending machines; sales of fruit for fundraisers; and coupons for discount gym memberships.View Additional Resources

Staff Wellness._______________ School District highly values the health and well-being of every staff member and will plan and implement activities and policies that support personal efforts by staff to maintain a healthy lifestyle. Each district/school should establish and maintain a staff wellness committee composed of at least one staff member, school health council member, local hospital representative, dietitian or other health professional, recreation program representative, union representative, and employee benefits specialist. (The staff wellness committee could be a subcommittee of the school health council.) The committee should develop, promote, and oversee a multifaceted plan to promote staff health and wellness. The plan should be based on input solicited from school staff and should outline ways to encourage healthy eating, physical activity, and other elements of a healthy lifestyle among school staff. The staff wellness committee should distribute its plan to the school health council annually.View Additional Resources

Daily Physical Education (P.E.) K-12.All students in grades K-12, including students with disabilities, special health-care needs, and in alternative educational settings, will receive daily physical education (or its equivalent of 150 minutes/week for elementary school students and 225 minutes/week for middle and high school students) for the entire school year. All physical education will be taught by a certified physical education teacher. Student involvement in other activities involving physical activity (e.g., interscholastic or intramural sports) will not be substituted for meeting the physical education requirement. Students will spend at least 50 percent of physical education class time participating in moderate to vigorous physical activity.View Additional Resources

Daily Recess.All elementary school students will have at least 20 minutes a day of supervised recess, preferably outdoors, during which schools should encourage moderate to vigorous physical activity verbally and through the provision of space and equipment.

Schools should discourage extended periods (i.e., periods of two or more hours) of inactivity. When activities, such as mandatory school-wide testing, make it necessary for students to remain indoors for long periods of time, schools should give students periodic breaks during which they are encouraged to stand and be moderately active.View Additional Resources

Physical Activity Opportunities Before and After School.All elementary, middle, and high schools will offer extracurricular physical activity programs, such as physical activity clubs or intramural programs. All high schools, and middle schools as appropriate, will offer interscholastic sports programs. Schools will offer a range of activities that meet the needs, interests, and abilities of all students, including boys, girls, students with disabilities, and students with special health-care needs.

After-school child care and enrichment programs will provide and encourage verbally and through the provision of space, equipment, and activities daily periods of moderate to vigorous physical activity for all participants.View Additional Resources

Physical Activity and Punishment.Teachers and other school and community personnel will not use physical activity (e.g., running laps, pushups) or withhold opportunities for physical activity (e.g., recess, physical education) as punishment.

Safe Routes to School.The school district will assess and, if necessary and to the extent possible, make needed improvements to make it safer and easier for students to walk and bike to school. When appropriate, the district will work together with local public works, public safety, and/or police departments in those efforts. The school district will explore the availability of federal safe routes to school funds, administered by the state department of transportation, to finance such improvements. The school district will encourage students to use public transportation when available and appropriate for travel to school, and will work with the local transit agency to provide transit passes for students.View Additional Resources

Use of School Facilities Outside of School Hours.School spaces and facilities should be available to students, staff, and community members before, during, and after the school day, on weekends, and during school vacations. These spaces and facilities also should be available to community agencies and organizations offering physical activity and nutrition programs. School policies concerning safety will apply at all times.

Monitoring.The superintendent or designee will ensure compliance with established district-wide nutrition and physical activity wellness policies. In each school, the principal or designee will ensure compliance with those policies in his/her school and will report on the schools compliance to the school district superintendent or designee.

School food service staff, at the school or district level, will ensure compliance with nutrition policies within school food service areas and will report on this matter to the superintendent (or if done at the school level, to the school principal). In addition, the school district will report on the most recent USDA School Meals Initiative (SMI) review findings and any resulting changes. If the district has not received a SMI review from the state agency within the past five years, the district will request from the state agency that a SMI review be scheduled as soon as possible.

The superintendent or designee will develop a summary report every three years on district-wide compliance with the districts established nutrition and physical activity wellness policies, based on input from schools within the district. That report will be provided to the school board and also distributed to all school health councils, parent/teacher organizations, school principals, and school health services personnel in the district.

Policy Review.To help with the initial development of the districts wellness policies, each school in the district will conduct a baseline assessment of the schools existing nutrition and physical activity environments and policies.13The results of those school-by-school assessments will be compiled at the district level to identify and prioritize needs.

Assessments will be repeated every three years to help review policy compliance, assess progress, and determine areas in need of improvement. As part of that review, the school district will review our nutrition and physical activity policies; provision of an environment that supports healthy eating and physical activity; and nutrition and physical education policies and program elements. The district, and individual schools within the district, will, as necessary, revise the wellness policies and develop work plans to facilitate their implementation.

2To the extent possible, schools will offer at least two non-fried vegetable and two fruit options each day and will offer five different fruits and five different vegetables over the course of a week. Schools are encouraged to source fresh fruits and vegetables from local farmers when practicable.

3As recommended by theDietary Guidelines for Americans 2005.

4A whole grain is one labeled as a whole grain product or with a whole grain listed as the primary grain ingredient in the ingredient statement. Examples include whole wheat flour, cracked wheat, brown rice, and oatmeal.

5It is against the law to make others in the cafeteria aware of the eligibility status of children for free, reduced-price, or paid meals.

6School nutrition staff development programs are available through the USDA, School Nutrition Association, and National Food Service Management Institute.

7Surprisingly, seltzer water may not be sold during meal times in areas of the school where food is sold or eaten because it is considered a Food of Minimal Nutritional Value (Appendix B of 7 CFR Part 210).

8If a food manufacturer fails to provide theaddedsugars content of a food item, use the percentage of weight from total sugars (in place of the percentage of weight fromaddedsugars), and exempt fruits, vegetables, and dairy foods from this total sugars limit.

9Schools that have vending machines are encouraged to include refrigerated snack vending machines, which can accommodate fruits, vegetables, yogurts, and other perishable items.

10Unless this practice is allowed by a students individual education plan (IEP).

11Advertising of low-nutrition foods and beverages is permitted in supplementary classroom and library materials, such as newspapers, magazines, the Internet, and similar media, when such materials are used in a class lesson or activity, or as a research tool.

12Schools should not permit general brand marketing for food brands under which more than half of the foods or beverages do not meet the nutrition standards for foods sold individually or the meals are not consistent with school meal nutrition standards.

13Useful self-assessment and planning tools include theSchool Health Indexfrom the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC),Changing the Scenefrom the Team Nutrition Program of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), andOpportunity to Learn Standards for Elementary, Middle, and High School Physical Educationfrom the National Association for Sport and Physical Education.

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Trailer (promotion

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Atrailer(also known as aprevieworcoming attraction) is a commercialadvertisementfor afeature filmthat will be exhibited in the future at acinema, the result of creative and technical work. The term trailer comes from their having originally been shown at the end of a feature film screening.1That practice did not last long, because patrons tended to leave the theater after the films ended, but the name has stuck. Trailers are now shown before the film begins.

Movie trailers have now become popular onDVDsandBlu-raydiscs, as well as on the Internet and mobile devices. Of some 10 billion videos watched online annually, film trailers rank third, after news and user-created video.2The trailer format has also been adopted as a promotional tool for television shows, video games, books, and theatrical events/concerts.

The first trailer shown in an American film theater was in November 1913, whenNils Granlund, the advertising manager for theMarcus Loewtheater chain, produced a short promotional film for the musicalThe Pleasure Seekers, opening at the Winter Garden Theatre on Broadway. As reported in a wire service story carried by theLincoln, NebraskaDaily Star, the practice which Loew adopted was described as an entirely new and unique stunt, and that moving pictures of the rehearsals and other incidents connected with the production will be sent out in advance of the show, to be presented to the Loews picture houses and will take the place of much of the bill board advertising.3Granlund was also first to introduce trailer material for an upcoming motion picture, using a slide technique to promote an upcoming film featuringCharlie Chaplinat Loews Seventh Avenue Theatre in Harlem in 1914.4

Trailers were initially shown after, or trailing, the feature film, and this led to their being called trailers. The practice was found to be somewhat ineffective, often ignored by audiences who left immediately after the feature. Later, exhibitors changed their practice so that trailers were only one part of the film program, which included cartoon shorts, newsreels, and serial adventure episodes. Today, more elaborate trailers and commercial advertisements have largely replaced other forms of pre-feature entertainment, and in major multiplex chains, about the first 20 minutes after the posted showtime is devoted to trailers.citation needed

Up until the late 1950s, trailers were mostly created byNational Screen Serviceand consisted of various key scenes from the film being advertised, often augmented with large, descriptive text describing the story, and an underscore generally pulled from studio music libraries. Most trailers had some form of narration, and those that did featuredstentorianvoices.citation needed

In the early 1960s, the face of motion picture trailers changed. Textless, montage trailers and quick-editing became popular, largely due to the arrival of the new Hollywood and techniques that were becoming increasingly popular in television. Among the trend setters wereStanley Kubrickwith his montage trailers forLolita(1962),Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb(1964), and2001: A Space Odyssey(1968). Kubricks main inspiration for theDr. Strangelovetrailer was the short filmVery Nice, Very Nice(1961) by Canadian film visionaryArthur LipsettPablo Ferro, who pioneered the techniques Kubrick required as necessary elements for the success of his campaign, created theDr. Strangelovetrailer, as well as the award-winning trailer forA Clockwork Orange(1971).citation needed

Many home videos contain trailers for other movies produced by the same company scheduled to be available shortly after the legal release of the video, so as not to spend money advertising the videos on TV. MostVHStapes would play them at the beginning of the tape, but some VHS tapes contained previews at the end of the film or at both ends of the tape. VHS tapes that contained trailers at the end usually reminded the viewer to Stay tuned after the feature for more previews. WithDVDsandBlu-rays, trailers can operate as a bonus feature instead of having to watch through the trailers before the film.citation needed

Trailers consist of a series selected shots from the film being advertised. Since the purpose of the trailer is to attract an audience to the film, these excerpts are usually drawn from the most exciting, funny, or otherwise noteworthy parts of the film but in abbreviated form and usually without producingspoilers. For this purpose the scenes are not necessarily in the order in which they appear in the film. A trailer has to achieve that in less than 2 minutes and 30 seconds, the maximum length allowed by theMPAA. Each studio or distributor is allowed to exceed this time limit once a year, if they feel it is necessary for a particular film.5

In January 2014, the movie theater trade groupNational Association of Theatre Ownersissued an industry guideline asking that film distributors supply trailers that run no longer than 2 minutes, which is 30 second shorter than the prior norm.6The guideline is not mandatory, and also allows for limited exceptions of a select few movies having longer trailers. Film distributors reacted coolly to the announcement. There had been no visible disputes on trailer running time prior to the guideline, which surprised many.

Some trailers use special shoot footage, which is material that has been created specifically for advertising purposes and does not appear in the actual film. The most notable film to use this technique wasTerminator 2: Judgment Day, whose trailer featured an elaborate special effect scene of a T-800 Terminator being assembled in a factory that was never intended to be in the film itself.Dimension Filmsalso shot extra scenes for their 2006 horror remake,Black Christmas- these scenes were used in promotional footage for the film, but are similarly absent from the theatrical release. A trailer for the 2002 blockbusterSpider-Manhad an entire action sequence especially constructed that involved escaping bank robbers in a helicopter getting caught in a giant web between theWorld Trade Centers two towers. However, after theSeptember 11 attacksthe studio pulled it from theaters.

One of the most famous special shoot trailers is that used for the 1960s thrillerPsycho, which featured directorAlfred Hitchcockgiving viewers a guided tour of the Bates Motel, eventually arriving at the infamous shower. At this point, the soft-spoken Hitchcock suddenly throws the shower curtain back to revealVera Mileswith a blood-curdling scream. As the trailer, in fact, was made after completion of the film whenJanet Leighwas no longer available for filming, Hitchcock had Miles don a blonde wig for the fleeting sequence. Since the title, Psycho, instantly covers most of the screen, the switch went unnoticed by audiences for years until freeze-frame analysis clearly revealed that it was Vera Miles and not Janet Leigh in the shower during the trailer.

There are dozens of companies that specialize in the creation of film trailers in Los Angeles and New York. The trailer may be created at agencies (such as The Cimarron Group, MOJO, The Ant Farm, Ben Cain, Aspect Ratio, Flyer Entertainment, Trailer Park, Buddha Jones) while the film itself is being cut together at the studio. Since the edited film does not exist at this point, the trailereditorswork fromrushesordailies. Thus, the trailer may contain footage that is not in the final movie, or the trailer editor and the film editor may use differenttakesof a particular shot. Another common technique is including music on the trailer which does not appear on the movies soundtrack. This is nearly always a requirement, as trailers and teasers are created long before the composer has even been hired for the film scoresometimes as much as a year ahead of the movies release datewhile composers are usually the last creative people to work on the film.

Some trailers that incorporate material not in the film are particularly coveted by collectors, especially trailers for classic films. For example, in a trailer forCasablancathe character Rick Blaine says, OK, you asked for it! before shooting Major Strasser; this line of dialogue is not spoken in the final film.

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Over the years, there have been many instances where trailers give misleading representations of their films. They may give the impression that a celebrity who only has a minor part in the film is one of the main cast members, or advertising a film as being more action-packed than it is. These tricks are usually done to draw in a larger audience. Sometimes the trailers include footage not from the film itself. This could be an artistic choice, or because the trailer was put together before the films final cut, but at other times it is to give the audience a different impression of the movie. Then trailers could be misleading in a for the audiences own good kind of way, in that a general audience would not usually see such a film due to preconceptions, and bybait and switching, they can allow the audience to have a great viewing experience that they would not ordinarily have. However, the opposite is true too, with the promise of great trailers being let down by mediocre films.7An American woman sued the makers ofDrivebecause their film failed to live up to its promos promise,8910although her lawsuit was dismissed.1112In August 2016, an American lawyer attempted to sueSuicide Squadfor false advertising over lack of scenes includingJoker.13

Trailers tell the story of a film in a highly condensed fashion to have maximum appeal. In the decades since film marketing has become a large industry, trailers have become highly polished pieces of advertising, able to present even poor movies in an attractive light. Some of the elements common to many trailers are listed below. Trailers are typically made up of scenes from the film they are promoting, but sometimes containdeleted scenesfrom the film.

The key ambition in trailer-making is to impart an intriguing story that gets film audiences emotionally involved.14

Most trailers have athree-act structuresimilar to a feature-length film. They start with a beginning (act 1) that lays out the premise of the story. The middle (act 2) drives the story further and usually ends with a dramatic climax. Act 3 usually features a strong piece of signature music (either a recognizable song or a powerful, sweeping orchestral piece). This last act often consists of a visual montage of powerful and emotional moments of the film and may also contain a cast run if there are noteworthy stars that could help sell the movie.

Voice-overnarration is sometimes used to briefly set up the premise of the film and provide explanation when necessary, although this practice has declined in the years after the passing of voice-over artistDon LaFontaine. Since the trailer is a highly condensed format, voice-over is a useful tool to enhance the audiences understanding of the plot. Some of the best-known, modern-day trailer voice-over artists have been the aforementioned LaFontaine,Hal DouglasMark Elliott, John Leader,Corey BurtonGeorge DelHoyoPeter CullenMorgan FreemanAshton SmithJim Cummings, John Garry,Tom KaneNick SchatzkiBen Patrick Johnson, Tony Rodgers,Beau Weaver, andBrian Cummings. Classic voice-over artists in film trailers of the 1940s, 1950s and 1960s included Howard Strickling (for MGM), Lou Marcelle (for Warner Bros.), Art Gilmore, Knox Manning, Reed Hadley, Les Tremayne (for MGM), Fred Foy (for MGM), Karl Weber (for MGM) and Bob Marcato. Hollywood trailers of the classic film era were renowned for clichs such as Colossal!, Stupendous!, etc. Some trailers have used voice over clichs for satirical effect. This can be seen in trailers for films such as Jerry Seinfelds Comedian and Tenacious D in The Pick of Destiny.

Musichelps set thetoneand mood of the trailer. Usually the music used in the trailer is not from the film itself (thefilm scoremay not have been composed yet). The music used in the trailer may be:

Music from the score of other movies.

Popular or well-known music, often chosen for its tone, appropriateness of a lyric or lack thereof, or recognizability. The most often used of these is

as well as the works ofE.S. PosthumusandBeethoven. Popular music may be selected for its tone (i.e. hard rock for an action film, lighter pop for a romantic comedy), or to establish context (e.g. the trailer for a film set in the 1940s might use big band swing).

Library music previously composed specifically to be used in advertising by an independent composer. There are many trailer music library companies which producetrailer music, some of the best known areaudiomachineTwo Steps From HellImmediate MusicandX-Ray Dogor SFX and Music libraries like the ones from Moss Landing,Gerrit Kinkel ProductionsorredCola.

Specially composed music. One of the most famous Hollywood trailer music composers, credited with creating the musical voice of contemporary trailers, isJohn Beal, who began scoring trailers in the 1970s and, in the course of a thirty-year career, created original music for over 2,000 film trailer projects,

including 40 of the top-grossing films of all time, such as

Acast runis a list of thestarsthat appear in the movie. If thedirectororproduceris well-known or has made other popular movies, they often warrant a mention as well. Most trailers conclude with abillingblock, which is a list of the principalcastandcrew. It is the same list that appears on posters and print publicity materials, and also usually appears on-screen at the beginning (or end) of the movie. Studioproduction logosare usually featured near the beginning of the trailer. Until the late 1970s, they were put only at the end of the trailer or not used at all; however,Paramount Pictureswas the first studio to use its actual studio logo at the beginning of its trailers in the 1940s. Often there will be logos for both theproduction companyanddistributorof the film.

Many trailers aremixedin Dolby Digital or any other multichannel sound mix. Scenes including sound effects and music that are enhanced by stereophonic sound are therefore the focus point of many modern trailers.

Trailers preceding feature films are generally presented in the same format as the feature, being either 35mm film or a digital format. High bandwidth internet connections allow for trailers to be distributed online at any resolution. Since the advent ofDigital 3D, it has become common for a 3‑D feature film to be preceded by one or more trailers that are also presented in 3‑D.

National Screen Service contracts required that trailers be returned (at the cinemas expense) or destroyed, however it required no proof of destruction and depositing them in a waste bin counted. A market for trailers evolved as it became clear that some had a commercial value to collectors. Many of the trailers for films like theStar Warsseries reported as destroyed were taken back out of the bin and sold by cinema staff. As they cost about $60 each to make (1981 estimate) and were hired to the cinema for $10, such losses led to NSS increasing its rental charges, which led to a decrease in the number of trailers rented and shown to audiences.17

Some cinemas also began to show trailer trash programs of trailers without a main feature. Similarly, several DVDs containing nothing but trailers for films, typically from exploitation film genres, have been produced for sale.

Beginning in the late 1990s to early 2000s, and along with the development of the Internet and sites such asYouTubeas well as animation techniques, more types of trailers began to be created due to easier and cheaper costs to produce and show trailers.

Beginning in the late 1990s to early 2000s, video game trailers began to be produced as they became more mainstream. Used to entice viewers to go out and play the game, game trailers are very useful. The content and production process is similar to that for movies, complicated by the need to convey the way the game plays. The trailer for Aliens: Colonial Marines, for example, featured graphics that were of a higher standard than the game that was eventually sold.18Hideo Kojima, a game creator strongly influenced by Hollywood movies, edits the elaborate trailers for his own games from a special studio in his office.19

TV spots are trailers for movies shown on television that are often shortened to 3060 seconds. These trailers are similar to green band trailers and have content appropriate for the channel.

TV showtrailers are trailers advertising a new TV series, episode, event or marathon premiering on television. Trailers for the next episode of a TV series are often shown during or following the closing credits of the show.

Abook traileris avideoadvertisement for abookwhich employs techniques similar to those ofmovie trailersto promote books and encourage readers.20These trailers can also be referred to as video-podcasts, with higher quality trailers being called cinematic book trailers.21They are circulated on television and online in most common digital video formats.22Common formats of book trailers include actors performing scenes from the book akin to a movie trailer, full production trailers, flash videos, animation or simple still photos set to music with text conveying the story.23This differs from author readings and interviews, which consist of video footage of the author narrating a portion of their writing or being interviewed.24Early book trailers consisted mostly of still images of the book, with some videos incorporating actors,25withJohn Farrissbook trailer for his 1986 novelWildwoodincorporating images from the book cover along with actors such asJohn Zacherle.26

In September 2007, theSchool Library Journalestablished the Trailie Award for the best book trailers. There are three categories: author/publisher created, student created and librarian/adult created. The award was announced at theSchool Library JournalLeadership Summit on the Future of Reading on October 22, 2010 in Chicago.27

In 2014, Dan Rosen and CV Herst established BookReels, a website dedicated to allowing publishers and authors to post book trailers and other multimedia, culminating in the annual BookReels Awards. BookReels lets readers browse and rate trailers, post comments and reviews, join discussion groups, and share BookReel discoveries.28

For popular movies, fans often make trailers on their own. These are unofficial videos by fans utilizing audio or video of a movie, studio trailer, animation techniques or fan-acted scenes replacing the video of the official trailer.

TheMotion Picture Association of America(MPAA) mandates that theatrical trailers be no longer than two minutes and thirty seconds. Each major studioclarification neededis given one exception to this rule per year.citation neededInternet or home-video trailers have no time restrictions.Rating cardsappear at the head of trailers in the United States which indicate how closely the trailer adheres to the MPAAs standards.citation needed

Agreen bandis an all-green graphic at the beginning of the trailer. Until April 2009, these cards indicated that they had been approved for all audiences and often included the moviesMPAA rating. This signified that the trailer adheres to the standards for motion picture advertising outlined by the MPAA, which include limitations on foul language and violent, sexual, or otherwise objectionable imagery. In April 2009, the MPAA began to permit the green band language to say that a trailer had been approved for appropriate audiences, meaning that the material would be appropriate for audiences in theaters, based on the content of the film they had come to see. In May 2013, the MPAA changed the trailer approval band from for appropriate audiences to to accompany this feature, but only when accompanying a feature film; for bands not accompanying a feature film, the text of the band remained the same. The font and style of the text on the graphic bands (green and red) was also changed at the time the green band was revised in 2013.citation needed

Trailers which do not adhere to these guidelines may be issued ared band, which indicates approval for only restricted or mature audiences. These trailers may only be shown theatrically before R-rated, NC-17-rated, or unrated moviescitation needed(only films that are released in theaters rated R and not in theatersclarification neededrated PG-13). These trailers may include nudity, profanity, or other material deemed inappropriate for children.29

Additionally, yellow band trailers were introduced around 2007 to indicate restricted content, only for distribution on the Internet. Although official, this practice appears to have never been widespread (although occasional yellow band trailers are created). A notable example is the yellow band trailer for Rob ZombiesHalloween(2007).30

Every year there are two main events that give awards to outstanding film trailers: TheKey Art Awards, presented byThe Hollywood Reporter, and theGolden Trailer Awards. The Golden Trailer Awards and the Key Art Awards pick winners in all creative parts of film advertising, from trailers and TV spots to posters and print ads. The Golden Trailer Awards are currently expanding to add a sister event, The World Trailer Awards, to be a kickoff to the Cannes Film Festival in France, 2013. The yearly Key Art Awards ceremony is often held at theDolby Theaterin Hollywood.The Film Informantalso recognizes movie marketing media and held the first annual TFI Awards in early January 2012.31The site is the first to officially start recognizing and rating movie marketing media on a daily basis.

List of most viewed online trailers in the first 24 hours

Gfactor (2007-11-06).Why are they called trailers if theyre shown before the movie?. The Straight Dope.

AWFJ Opinion Poll: All About Movie Trailers. AWFJ. 2008-05-09.

Movies Score on Legit in New York; Lincoln, Nebraska

Blondes, Brunettes, and Bullets, Granlund, N.T.; Van Rees Press, NY, 1957, Page 53

Trailer music. SoundtrackNet, LLC. 30 April 2009.

Theaters Advocate Shorter Movie Trailers. . 2014-01-28.

10 Movie Trailers That Are Nothing Like The Actual Movie. m

Hardie, Giles (October 11, 2011).Misleading trailer leads to law suit.

Child, Ben (10 October 2011).Woman sues to stop Drive getting away with a misleading trailer.

10/08/11 3:02pm 10/08/11 3:02pm.Woman Files Lawsuit Over Misleading Trailer for Drive. Gawker.com

, No. 309989 (Mich. Ct. App. Oct. 15, 2013).

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Suicide Squad fan suing for false advertising over the lack of Joker scenes.

Marketing to Moviegoers: A Handbook of Strategies and Tactics

(3rd ed.). Southern Illinois University Press. pp.642.

SoundtrackNet: Trailers: Frequently Used Trailer Music. Soundtrack.net

Daily Variety: Razor-thin copyright line.

Coming Soon to a Theatre Near You – Maybe in Ares 8, Schow, DJ; Simulations Publications, NY 1981, Page 33

Sega Admits Aliens: Colonial Marines Trailer Was Misleading. Forbes

Matulef, Jeffrey (2014-03-14).War has changed. But has Hideo Kojima? • Articles • PlayStation 4 •. Eurogamer.net

Chmielewski, Dawn (November 4, 2006).YouTube video sets stage for novel.

Publicize Your Book (Updated): An Insiders Guide to Getting Your Book the Attention It Deserves

. Perigee Trade.ISBN0399534318.

Berton, Justin (September 18, 2006).Seeking readers via book trailer / Publisher tries out movie-style preview to market new title

Fox, Killian (15 July 2006).On a screen near you …

Kneschke, Tristan (February 20, 2012).Dont Judge a Book by its Trailer.

Metz, Nina.Super Sad Book Trailers. Chicago Tribune.

Fitton, Akira.TOR Books WILDWOOD promo

SLJs Trailie Awards Asks Readers to Vote for Their Favorite Book Trailer. School Library Journal

BookReels, an MTV for Books?. Publishers Weekly

Barnes, Brooks (February 23, 2010).Cat-and-Mouse for a Trashy Trailer. New York Times

Halbfinger, David M. (13 June 2007).Attention, Web Surfers: The Following Film Trailer May Be Racy or Graphic.

. The Film Informant. Archived fromthe originalon 17 July 2012

Wikimedia Commons has media related to

Frame by Frame: Film TrailersbyUniversity of NebraskaLincolnFilm Studies ProfessorWheeler Winston Dixon

Movie trailers website byApple, Inc.

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Army Counseling Examples

We need more examples. If you got em, they can be shared by using the form below. Thanks!

In the Army, counseling is an almost daily requirement. Whether its meant to guide a Soldiers growth, document career milestones, or correct improper behavior, it can be a challenge to find the words to adequately describe a Soldiers performance and potential.

In order to make finding the counseling example you need easier, counseling examples are now organized into the three broad types of counseling: Performance Counseling, Event-Oriented Counseling, and Professional Growth.

Magic bullet statements, Privacy Act statements, forms and regulations are listed under References.

Initial and Monthly Counseling for E-4 and below

Initial and Quarterly NCO Counseling

Magic Bullet Statement/UCMJ Statements

Articles of the UCMJ Quick Reference

Dog Company, 1-12 Infantry, 4 Brigade, 4 ID

Squad Reception Memo – 4856 Cover Sheet

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